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Block: 4A Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces Since 1950 many states have faced challenges in developing a strong national identity.
Using contemporary examples, explain how each other following has contributed to the development of national identity and the strengthening of the state. When an economy is strong, then the people feel confident in their country and their government. This also makes people think less about the differences between each other because they are happy and comfortable and aren't trying to blame their problems on another ethnic group being more successful than them.
Deng Xiaoping's policies helped to unify China. Chinese citizens weren't unified after the failure of the Great Leap Forward and the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Deng increased productivity by encouraging growth decollectivizing agriculture and dividing the land into private plots instead of communes. This allowed the citizens who were farming the land to keep the land's output and increase their wealth. This gave them better opportunities and gave them a better standard of living. This increased the citizens faith in the government and also brought the people closer together since they weren't all so focused on getting as much money as their possibly could in order to struggle and live. Positive economic development is a centripetal force. Economic Development Since the 1950s many states have seen benefits by relocating a state’s capital. When states relocate their capital they usually relocate to a more a central location with strengthens their communication; one example is Brazil. Brazil’s old capital, Rio de Janeiro, was located near the southern coast line of Brazil and the capital was well developed but many areas lacked control and development due to an oddly placed capital. By moving their capital to Brasilia, a city in the middle of Brazil they were able to develop Brazil as a whole. Relocating Brazil’s capital was certainly a centripetal force for the state improving overall development and strengthening the state. Relocation of a state's capital Using contemporary examples, explain how each other following may detract from the development of national identity and weaken a state. If a state is multiethnic, then that can act as a centrifugal force by dividing the people into those different ethnic groups. People become less loyal to the national government than they do to their own ethnic group. Yugoslavia fell victim to this concept. After the breakup of the USSR, Yugoslavia became a country with the republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Slovenia, and Serbia. They were united under President Tito, but after he died the state began to disintegrate in the 1990s. Nobody wanted a person from an ethnicity other than their own ruling them. The main conflict was between the Serbs and the Croats. It got to the point that Yugoslavia completely broke up and is now all separate countries with each ethnicity getting their own country. Ethnicity Transportation infrastructure can be a centrifugal force because it could be hard to get to one place to another. There is a lack of transportation infrastructure in India which detracts from the development of national identity and weakens a state. There are poor roads in many areas in India and that detracts from the development of an area because the poor roads induce people to not go too far from home or not to go to work. If people don't go to work than the economy can suffer. That also brings isolation and lessens development because it isolates people from others who live a further distance. The size or shape of a state can detract from development because if it is an area that is very large like Russia it would cost a lot of money to get form one part to another. Transportation Infrastructure