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Drivers Education Ch. 7 Negotiating Intersections

Teaching students how to properly handle driving through intersections

Sean Masten

on 7 February 2014

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Transcript of Drivers Education Ch. 7 Negotiating Intersections

7.1: Searching Intersections
7.2: Controlled Intersections
7.3: Uncontrolled Intersections
7.4: Determining Right of Way & Judging Gaps
Ch. 7: Negotiating Intersections
More than 1/3 of all collisions & ¼ of all fatal collisions
Searching Intersections
Determine if you have an open zone
Search the left-front, front, & right-front zones  
Once you are within 4-6 seconds of the intersection, WIDEN your searching pattern
Approaching an Intersection
You may continue ahead if:
The traffic light is green
The intersection has no signals or signs & the front, right-front, & left-front zones are open
You should continue through the intersection once you pass the POINT OF NO RETURN
Point beyond which you can no longer stop safely without entering the intersection.
If you have a line-of-sight restriction, you may want to change your lane position & reduce your speed.
Continue Moving Ahead
You may have to stop at an intersection when you identify or predict a closed zone.

- Yellow or red traffic light
- YIELD sign
- Something moving into
your intended path of travel.

As soon as you identify a closed zone, check your rear zone and begin to brake.
Deciding to Stop
Before you start to move, search at 90-degree angles to the right & left
When turning, your last check should be in the direction of your turn
If stopped behind another vehicle, wait 1 second after it begins to move before you move.
Gives you room to respond to any sudden stop made by the vehicle ahead.
Moving After a Stop
One at which traffic signals or signs determine the right of way.
Obey all signs & traffic signals when you approach a controlled intersection
YIELD the right of way to through traffic.
2 kinds of signs control intersections: STOP & YIELD
Come to a FULL STOP for a STOP sign
Slow & yield the right of way at a YIELD sign
Controlled Intersections
with Signs
Always predict that the signal is about to change. 

Search 12-15 seconds ahead to see what color the light ahead is.

If the light turns yellow before you reach the point of no return, begin to stop.

Controlled Intersections
with Signals
An UNPROTECTED LEFT TURN: a signal-controlled intersection that does not have a special left-turn light

A PROTECTED LEFT TURN: special left-turn light, green arrow, or delayed green light lets you turn left while oncoming traffic is stopped.

A DELAYED GREEN LIGHT: one side of an intersection has a green light while the light for the oncoming traffic remains red.
Protected & Unprotected Left Turns
All states allow turns on red
Come to a full stop at line.
Check traffic to the left.
Check vehicles across the street that may be turning left.
Turn right when all is clear

Most states permit turning LEFT on RED if the turn is from a one-way street onto another one-way street.
Turns on Red
Usually has red lights along with crossing gates.
Make a complete stop when the lights are flashing and/or the gates are down.
Remain stopped until the lights stop flashing and the gaits have risen.
It is ILLEGAL, UNSAFE, and COSTLY to drive around the gates.
Proceed only when it is clear.
Controlled Railroad Crossings
-Has no signs or signals to regulate traffic.
-Usually found in areas of light traffic, such as residential areas.
-If you do not see a traffic sign or signal, predict that other traffic will NOT STOP.
-Reduce your speed, search aggressively, & always be prepared to stop. Do not assume others will stop.
Uncontrolled Intersections
Determine if you have an open path of travel.
If a vehicle is coming from the left or right, the driver on the left must YIELD to the driver on the right.
Predict the worst:
Approaching Uncontrolled Intersections
Nearly all are marked with a sign as you approach them.

Railroad Crossings
-Slow down to check tracks on both sides and to handle a possible rough crossings with hills and bumps
-Turn off anything that makes noise & open the window
-If a train is approaching, stop at a safe distance before the tracks
-Wait for the train to clear & be sure another train is not approaching
-If it is safe to cross, increase you speed to at least 20 m.p.h.
-Make sure the vehicle ahead of you clears the tracks.

Be prepared to stop behind buses or trucks hauling flammable contents and other unsafe cargo
Crossing Railroad Tracks
To be a safe driver, you need to know when to yield the right of way
In yield situations, remember:
Your actions should not cause those around you to slow, stop, or change their intended path of travel.
Traffic signs & signals only show WHO should yield, not who WILL
NEVER assume others will always yield to you
It may be better to yield even though the law says otherwise
Failure to yield is one of the most frequent violations in fatal collisions.
Determining Right of Way
Pedestrians in or near the crosswalk
All traffic on the through street
Yield at STOP signs to . . .
Pedestrians still in the crosswalk
Vehicles still in the intersection
Yield at fresh green lights to. . .
Pedestrians before reaching the sidewalk
All vehicles on the street
Make two stops
Yield coming from an alley, driveway, or private roadway to. . .
All pedestrians in or near crosswalks
All vehicles on the cross street
Yield at ALL YIELD signs to. . .
Sounding a siren or using a flashing light
Stop clear of the intersection close to curb
Wait for emergency vehicle to pass
Yield to Emergency Vehicles
Many Situations When You Must Yield
Yield Signs
Stop signs
Fresh green light
Coming from an alley, driveway,
or private roadway
"T" Intersections
Emergency vehicles
Uncontrolled intersections
Four-way intersections
Turning left

Right of Way
Street Signs
Roadway Markings
Crossing Traffic
Parked Vehicles
Turning Traffic
Traffic Stopping
Rows of Mailboxes
Fences or Power Lines
Clues To Identify Intersections
15 times more likely to be killed in a train collision than any other accident
100car train at 55mph needs more that 1 mile to stop
Its illegal to cross tracks if the arm is down or lights are flashing red. Flashing red means STOP!!!
Stop no closer than 15 feet to the crossing

When turning, you must yield to oncoming traffic
Unprotected Left Turns
Protected Left Turns
Left-Turn-Located over turn lane
Green Arrow-Can appear with red, yellow, and green signals
Delayed Green-Traffic will be allowed to turn or go straight while oncoming traffic has a red light

Major Reason –
Driver’s failure to identify a safe path of travel
through the intersection
Privilege of having immediate use of a certain part of a roadway
What is Right of Way?
Types of Intersections

Always look left, right , left at intersections
Always Checking Your Rear Zones
More accidents occur at controlled intersections
People make mental errors
People not obeying the signals

DO NOT move your eyes in a constant scan, you may miss something
When searching, briefly pause at each zone to detect objects in that location
Follow the same procedure every time when turning RIGHT on RED.
Treat uncontrolled crossings as you would a YIELD sign.
Does not have flashing red lights or crossing gates
A CROSSBUCK, a large white X-shaped sign, is located beside the crossing.
Treat an uncontrolled intersection as you would a YIELD sign.
In order to identify a safe path of travel, first locate:
Street signs & lights
Roadway markings
Crossing traffic
Parked vehicles
Turning & stopping traffic
Dangerous because many drivers’ paths cross & many unexpected stops occur there.
Chances of a collision are greater at intersections than at any other point on a roadway
Happen at Intersections
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