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Transcript of Acetylcholine
Born in Germany, American Citizen
1920 - Discovered 1st NT
“Dreamed” the experiment
Acetylcholine “vagus substance”
1936 - Nobel Prize "The night before Easter Sunday, I
woke, turned on the light and jotted
down a few notes on a tiny slip of paper.
Then I fell asleep again. The next
night at three o'clock, the idea
returned. It was the design of an
experiment to determine whether or not
the hypothesis of chemical transmission
that I had uttered seventeen years ago
was correct. I got up immediately went
to the laboratory and performed the simple experiment."
…The experiment worked The Experiment: Test the hypothesis of chemical transmission most "intuitive" discoveries are associated with earlier hypotheses buried deep in the unconscious mind Stimulate Vagus Nerve in Frog decrease in HB
take fluid from donor heart
place recipient heart in fluid
decrease in HB The structure of synapse
Pre synaptic part
Post synaptic part
Synaptic cleft Sites of release of acetyl choline. Depolarization.
Repolarization. Mechanism of transmitting a nerve impulse. 1-Pre synaptic membrane.
3- P.N.s which includes cholinergic fibers Sites of release of acetyl Choline. Synaptic vesicles.
Neuron cell bodies located in the hypothalamus.
Most ganglion neurons of sympathetic nervous system.
20% from the adrenal medulla. Sites of release of nor adrenaline.
caused by progressive damage to brain cells and loss of neurotransmitters . Diseases related to acetylcholine
caused by imbalance between levels of dopamine and acetylcholine
1- Tremors in the limbs.
3-Balance problems affects their walking
5-freezing case Treatment 1-Exercising
Electrodes Stem cells Diseases related to Nor epinephrine Deficiency
-The study (physostigmine)
-Conclusion EXCESS physical Emotional
- Drugs (alpha & beta blocking drugs)
-Natural extracts (theanine &arginine )
-Life style fate of acetylcholine
1- Amyle of a nerve impulses through axon
2- Causing a reflex and release of acetylcholine
3- Acetylcholine diffused across the synaptic cleft 4- Acetylcholine binds to receptors
5- Pons channel open causing influx
6- Cause generating of nerve impulse
Acetylcholine is deactivated by enzyme called ''Acetylcholiness sterss
Acetylcholine is present in a cholinergic synapse
Helps to impulses from neuron to neuron
Synapse is connected between two neuron Steps : Treatment: Alzheimer's Definition: Symptoms: Treatment: Definition: Symptoms: Acetylcholine on Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Acetylcholine has a role as a neuromodulator, mutually in the central nervous system or CNS; and in the peripheral nervous system or PNS 1- muscles stimulates
2- several neurotransmitters Peripheral nervous system
1- a neurotransmitter
2- a neuromodulator
3- essential inducer
all pre- and post-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons
all preganglionic sympathetic neurons
preganglionic sympathetic fibers to suprarenal medulla, the modified sympathetic ganglion; on stimulation by acetylcholine, the suprarenal medulla releases epinephrine and norepinephrine
some postganglionic sympathetic fibers
pseudomotor neurons to sweat glands.
slowing the heart beat
contraction in the skeletal muscle
opening different sodium channels in the cell membrane
the conversion of electric impulses to the form of chemical transmitters
undergoing enzyme-catalyzed reactions
calcium ion channels, and sodium channels
removal of the neurotransmitters used in the preparation,
Noradrenaline is considered as a neurotransmitter and also as a hormone.
Norepinephrine has a wide set of functions in the body:
body’s release of norepinephrine for a long period causes side effects
that triggers the sympathetic and central nervous system to become hyperactive in times of sudden stressful situations.
like increase in heart rate,
dilation of blood vessels,
increased blood pressure
such as hypotension medications and antidepressant drugs. Otto Loewi (1903-1961) Cholinergic Receptors: Where are they? autonomic ganglia - CNS & PNS
neuromuscular junction (somatic nerves)
brain – esp. the spinal cord
endothelial cells of the vascular beds (even though these are not innervated)
brain Nicotinic receptors Muscarinic receptors Cholinergic Receptors: Types Functions of Norepinephrine Central nervous system Other Functions of Acetylcholine As soon as acetylcholine is synthesized, it is stored within synaptic vesicles. In the cholinergic neurons acetylcholine is synthesized from choline. This reaction is activated by choline acetyltransferase Acetylcholine synthesis: Acetylcholinesterase Converts Using noradrenaline changes in vesicular NA
Noradrenaline content was decreased to 63%
NA storage capacity was decreased to 78%
Vesicles are not immediately available for reuse
The vesicle storage capacity was reduced Fate of noradrenaline In the autonomic nervous system, acetylcholine is released
in the following sites
1-its natural involvement in the process of synaptic plasticity
2-Acetylcholine is also needed in both voluntary and involuntary processes in the body Acetylcholine used in whatever activities in the liver, cortisol, in the nervous system, in the vascular
system, and other related functions
it is contained in different medicines In the nervous system, activation of the body’s fight-or-flight situation Urecholine and philocarpine are direct acting drugs.
philocarpin Drugs 1- is used to restore parasympathetic tone to smooth muscles of the intestinal tract and bladder following abdominal surgery
2- is used to constrict pupils and reduce pressure caused by glaucoma. Pilocarpine contracts the ciliary muscle with causes the iris to be withdrawn Urecholine Pilocarpine *70 seconds Alzheimer's
*5.2 million usa 2008
*Parkinson's 60 years Did you Know ? Synthesis of noradrenalin Have a role in otherwise secretory granules of the medullary chromaffin cells