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AP Physics Linear Momentum Review

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Kailey Seres

on 23 April 2012

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Transcript of AP Physics Linear Momentum Review

Linear Momentum Thank you for your attention! The homework questions are relatively challenging, but I think they are good practice! Good Luck, and feel free to ask me any questions! Practice Questions are included in your packet! Please give them a try, and I will give you the answer key with sample work. Momentum: the tendency of an object to remain in motion (linear - in a line) Momentum is conserved in isolated systems - no friction or air resistance
Split momentum into components based on direction The Basics Law of Conservation of Momentum Momentum in More than One Dimension Kailey Seres Equation: Pbefore= Pafter
Units: kgm/s Vector Quantity Basic Equation: p=mv Pz = MVz Py = MVy Px = MVx F = dp/dt Momentum and its Correlation
to Impulse and Force J = S F dt = p Impulse: the change in momentum; the product of a force and the time during which it acts; vector F vs. t graphs: Impulse = area Units: kgm/s or Ns Objects bounce off each other Elastic Collision V01 - V02 = -(Vf1 -Vf2) Equation derived from conservation of kinetic energy: Ki = Kf Momentum and Kinetic Energy are CONSERVED Some energy is lost, but the objects are SEPARATE at the end
Momentum is CONSERVED
Kinetic Energy is NOT CONSERVED
Ki = Kf
Some Examples:
Car accident and the cars do not stick together
Kicking a playground ball (note the deformation of the ball)
Trying to catch a lacrosse ball with a lacrosse stick but the ball hits the pocket and bounces out
Hit a tennis ball with a racket Inelastic Collision Objects collide and STICK TOGETHER
Momentum is CONSERVED
Kinetic Energy is NOT CONSERVED
Ki = Kf
Some examples of perfectly inelastic collisions
Throwing a dart at the dartboard and the dart sticks to the board
Gymnast perfectly lands dismount off of a balance beam
Sticky hand toys stick/attach to wall Perfectly Inelastic Collision Objects that break Perfectly Inelastic Backwards/Explosions Example: clown out of cannon Ki = Kf Kinetic Energy is NOT CONSERVED Momentum is CONSERVED An apparatus designed to allow for the calculation of the initial velocity Ballistic Pendulums Note: Momentum is conserved from (1) to (2) (3) All Ug (2) Perfectly Inelastic Collision (1) All KE The TOTAL collision can be considered ELASTIC! Collisions with Springs Solve in the same manner as you would with only two blocks Multiblock Collisions The final velocity of the second block during the first collision becomes its initial velocity for the second collision! Momentum is conserved in each collision
Momentum is a vector quantity, so: Collisions in Two Dimensions This is an ELASTIC Collision! Theta + Phi = 90 degrees If the two masses colliding are identical: Pz = MVz Py = MVy Kinetic Energy is a scalar quantity, so:
K = (1/2)m|v|^2
Px = MVx From (1) to (2): Perfectly Inelastic Collision From (1) to (3): Elastic Collision (3) K1 + K2 (2) All Us (1) K1 + K2 A spring will conserve the energy inside a system!
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