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Enzyme/ Receptors Copy
Transcript of Enzyme/ Receptors Copy
Functions of Proteins
Defense e.g. Antibodies, complimentary proteins
Movement e.g. motor proteins
Catalysis e.g. Enzymes
Signaling e.g. peptide hormones
Structure (for cell support)
Many proteins are specialized to catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions. A protein that functions as a catalyst is called an ENZYME. Most chemical reactions in cells don't occur fast enough to support life unless a catalyst is present. Chemical reactions take place when when reactants (a) collide in a precise orientation and (2) have enough kinetic energy to overcome repulsion between electrons that come into contact as a bond forms.
` Enzymes (which functions as catalysts) bring the reactant molecules (sustrates) together in a precise orientation. Collision between reactants creates a combination of old and new bonds - TRANSITION STATE.
Energy required to reach the transition state - ACTIVATION ENERGY (Ea) (of the reaction)
How do Enzymes Work? Sustrates bind to the enzyme's 'Active site'.
Binding to the active site induces a conformational change in the enzyme molecule- 'Induced Fit'.
R-groups in an ezyme's active eite stabilise the transition state of a sustrate. MODEL OF ENZYME ACTION Cofactors/Coenzymes
-metal ions (Zn+2)
-small organic molecules Regulation of Enzyme Activity
- Competitive Inhibition
- Allosteric Regulation Conditions necessary for
optimum enzyme function