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Transcript of Sumerians
"EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica Online School Edition." EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica Online School Edition. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. <http://school.eb.com/eb/article-9070297?query=sumer&ct=>.
Ancient Sumerians Jennifer D., Samantha P., Lexie R. Time Period:
When did they emerge as a civilization?
- People have lived in the Sumer region since the 5000's B.C.
When were they at their peak?
-From 2112 to 2004 B.C., is about when they reached their peak.
How long were they around?
-They were around from 5000 B.C. to 500 B.C.
When did they fall?
- Around 550 B.C
How was slavery part of this civilization?
-Slavery was used in this civilization because the Sumerians said that their “god had given them victory over an inferior people.”
Were the cities built by forced labor?
-The cities were not built by forced labor, everyone helped in the creation of their civilization.
Was slavery based on race?
-The slavery was not based on race, both men an women were slaves and the slavery was all based on the rank you were in the civilization.
Was it permanent?
-The slavery was not permanent, because you could buy your freedom or your owner could free you, once you are a freed slave, you cannot be forced back into slavery. Rise and Fall:
What caused this civilization to rise and fall?
-The rise was caused by different rulers making changes to the way they lived and in turn that made the trade and business change. The fall was caused by a group conquering most of Mesopotamia but that was not the end on the Sumerians.
Did they conquer another civilization?
-Yes they did, but it did not last very long
Were they conquered?
-Yes they were, by an Akkadian ruler named Sargon and he also conquered much of the rest of Mesopotamia
How many times were they conquered?
-They were conquered 2-3 times and during this, different civilizations joined the Sumer's to make the group stronger
Could they have stayed in power if their geographic location had been different?
Did this civilization have a golden age?
Was there a period in their history when they had a lot of money, power, art, trade and food?
- Yes there was, when they started to change their rulers and kings Bibliography c Beliefs
•What kind of religion or worship did they practice?
Sumerians had their own gods. The major gods were, An, the god of heaven, Ki, the goddess of earth, Enlil, the god of air, and Enki, the god of water. These gods were the four major components of earth.
•Were they polytheistic? Monotheistic?
The Sumerians were polytheistic because of all the gods.
•Was their religion and their government combined?
No, their religion and government are not combined. They had a caste system comprised of three classes: amelu, mushkinu, and slaves.
•Did they believe in life after death?
They believed that after people died, the spirits would travel to the netherworld, where life was more wretched than on earth. Technology
•What innovations were made in civilization?
They had many innovations with things having to do with travel, trade and commerce, written and oral communication, science and, their most significant, literature.
•Did they have a calendar?
Yes they did, they had the calendar we have today and the lunar calendar too.
•Did they have irrigation system?
Yes they did
•How did they build their buildings? Roads?
The used mud brick, mud plaster and wood, these were naturally available around the city. Writing
• What form of communication did they use?
They wrote many things like myths and epic tales, hymns and lamentations, proverbs, and essays, number in the hundreds on clay and pottery.
• What type of writing did they have? Was it pictographic?
The Sumerians used cuneiform as their writing system. This is pictographic, and has been found on thousands of pieces of pottery, on clay cylinder seals, and on clay tablets.
• Can we read it today?
Yes we can, it has much information about Sumerians and their life.
• Why did it develop?
It developed to keep track of different things such as goods and trading.
• Was it used by other civilizations as well?
Cuneiform was used by ancient Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian. Art/ Architecture
•What role did the arts have in this civilization?
They were mainly used for religious purposes
•What were their main forms of art?
Other sculptures and reliefs are quite static, except those that depict hybrid figures combining human and animal features.
•What was their architecture?
They made many sculptors made in marble, diorite, hammered gold, lapis lazuliahve, stone, wood, and metal
•What can we learn about them from their art?
We can learn about what they did in many things such as work, religion, trade, and much more. Geography
- Where were they located?
They were located in Mesopotamia.
- What is that place called today?
Mesopotamia is now called Iraq
- What effect did the geographic setting have on the civilization that grew there?
They lived by two rivers and that made most of their people farm barley and wheat and other types of fruits. They had canals witch gave them the opportunity to farm the flood plain.
- Were they geographically isolated from other civilizations?
They were isolated on the northeast by the Caspian sea, on the northwest by the Black and Mediterranean sea, on the southwest by the Persian gulf, and on the southwest by the Red sea.
- Were they exposed to large bodies of water?
Yes they were exposed to four large bodies of water (Mediterranean, Black, Red sea and Persian gulf. Economy
- What role did trade and commerce have in this civilization?
Trade was a big part of their economy. They grew crops, raised sheep/goats, and fished in their daily lives.
- What were their major products for trade?
Barley was the main crop. Wheat, flax, dates, apples , plums, and grapes were grown as well. Also, sheep and goats were used for milk, butter, meat, and cheese.
- How did their geography affect their trade?
Their geography affected their trade by them being near four large bodies of water because fishing was a part of daily life and trade.
- Was their economy based on a division of social classes?
No it was not Contributions
- What were the major contributions of this civilization to the world at their time?
They were the first to use a wheel and they had the first cities.
- Are there any lasting contributions still seen today?
We still use the wheel today and we have some version of their cities.
- What did they leave us?
They left us the wheel. Government
- What type of ruler-ship did they have?
They had a monarchy/democracy
- How were they organized?
They were organized by having city-states and each of the cities had its own ruler and each city was different.
- What type of laws did they have?
Hammurabi's Code (almost like what they called their law) dealt with land ownership, marriage, death, and inheritance.
- What were their courts like?
They did not have courts.
"EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica Online School Edition." EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica Online School Edition. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2013. <http://school.eb.com/eb/article-10767?query=sumer&ct=>.
"Sumer." www.worldbookonlie.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2013. <worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar539160&st=sumer&sc=-1&hl=1#stw>.