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Text Structure

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by

Stephen Greco

on 4 January 2015

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Transcript of Text Structure

Text Organization
Chronological Order


The writer places events in the order in which they happen. This is known as chronological order. Look for words like "first," "then," "finally," "a few minutes later," "next," "after lunch," "last year."

example:
First, Rhett was late getting to school. Then, he lost his homework. A few minutes later, the teacher asked him to clean out his desk. Now Rhett thinks it will be a bad day.

Comparison/Contrast


The text shows how ideas or things are alike or different. Look for words like "best," "more," "better," "less," "worse," "easier," "than."

example:
The best time to visit the Rocky Mountains is early fall. The weather is cooler in the fall than in the summer. You will see fewer people and more animals. The fall colors are more beautiful.

Cause/Effect


The text shows that one event causes another thing to happen. Look for words like "because," "then," "since," and "as a result."

example:
It rained for the first few days of the camping trip. As a result, most of the campers were restless and wanted to go home.

Problem/Solution


The text is split into two parts: One part presents a problem, and the other part gives the solution to the problem. Look for words like "problem," "solution," "solve," and "plan."

example:
The city of Taylor has fifteen public swimming pools. In the past, plenty of lifeguards have been available for staffing the pools throughout the summer. Most of the lifeguards were teenagers out of school for the summer. This year, however, not enough lifeguards have signed up to work. The city has started asking healthy, retired people to be lifeguards. They will be trained by the city for free if they will agree to work 10 hours per week at a city pool. They will be paid $8 an hour for their work.

The problem: Taylor doesn't have enough lifeguards to staff its city swimming pools.

The solution: Encourage retired people to become certified lifeguards and work at the pools.
Description


The text simply describes a situation or a thing. Passages that are organized to describe often use a lot of adjectives.

example:
My boat runs very well. It would be the perfect boat for a weekend with the family, and/or water sports. The open bow makes it ideal for bringing some extra people and catching some nice sun. The boat has two covers, a V8 OMC engine, depth finder, Four Winns trailer, open bow, and extras such as vest, fire extinguisher, and paddle.
Question/Answer


The writer presents a question and then tries to answer it.

example:
Many schools are thinking about this question: Should students be made to wear uniforms? I believe they should not. First, clothing is a very important way that kids express themselves . . .
Definition


The text defines a difficult term or idea. The definition is stated and expanded with examples and restatements. Look for bold or italic words to emphasize new vocabulary.

example:
The pharaoh was the ruler of ancient Egypt. The pharaoh was believed to have been the human form taken by the gods. One of the best known pharaohs is Tutankhamun, who ruled during the 18th dynasty.
Nationalism refers to the feelings of devotion and loyalty to one's own nation. It reflects the national spirit. One may understand it as a form of patriotism. When a country and its people express a desire for the progress or independence of their country, they show nationalism.
Often, nationalism is reflected in the principles and actions of a nation. For example, the people of a country maybe mostly concerned with its benefit. Sometimes, they seem to neglect how their actions may affect other nations. If taken to an extreme degree, nationalism can have negative results. During World War II, Germany's extreme nationalism had many negative results. Under Hitler's leadership, the German nationalists exterminated millions of people. It was then believed that these people did not fit into the idea of a superior, German race.
Nationalism is also the idea of a country based on its arts, history, and ambitions. The folk stories, idioms, songs, and beloved books of a nation show outsiders a picture of it. Thus, the idea of a country based on the people's love for it reflects nationalism.


2. The passage is organized using a structure of


A. cause/effect.
B. definition.
C. classification.
D. sequence.
Write your response here:
1. Because it was raining, my mom drove me to school today. However, the traffic was really bad so I ended up being late. Because of this, I got my 5th tardy and now I have to have lunch detention. I can’t sit with my friends today at lunch so I am really upset. I should have just ridden the bus today.

On your activity sheet, answer the following questions:

1.What type of text structure is evident in the passage above?

2. In using this text structure, what effect does it have on the reader?
2. Apples and oranges are both fruits, which means that they have seeds inside of them. Each has a skin, but orange skins are thick and easy to peel. Apple skins are thinner and do not peel easily. Oranges also contain more acid than apples, but both fruits are delicious.

On your activity sheet, answer the following questions:

1.What type of text structure is evident in the passage above?

2. In using this text structure, what effect does it have on the reader?
3. The pilgrims began their journey to America in August with two ships, the Speedwell and the Mayflower. After they discovered how badly the Speedwell leaked, they had to go back to England. Finally, they sailed again on September 16, 1620 with the Mayflower as their only ship.

On your activity sheet, answer the following questions:

1.What type of text structure is evident in the passage above?

2. In using this text structure, what effect does it have on the reader?
Sequence-Similar to chronological order, sequence is when an author puts events in the order that they SHOULD happen, such as in directions.

For example:

First, open the can of mushrooms. Second, pour them into a bowl. Third, mix the mushrooms with hot sauce. Fourth, eat and enjoy!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WlMt9yZx1N8&list=PLDF38F91E5604BA10&index=44&feature=plpp_video
Full transcript