Brief Summary of General Relatvity:

Combines space and time into a "fabric"

Curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present

Gravity is caused by objects with mass such as planets and stars warping space-time

The vibration of the string determines the charge and mass of the greater particle.

Quantum Mechanics

Brief Summary of Quantum Mechanics:

Deals with physical phenomena at nanoscopic scales

The more accurately you try to measure the position of a particle, the less accurately you can measure its speed

String theory aims to explain all types of observed elementary particles using quantum states of these strings.

Uncertainty Principle

String Theory

Strings have only one dimension (infinitely thin piece of string)

Strings found inside quarks

"Grand Unified Theory" of the fundamentals of matter, and what makes up the world around us

Doesn't work with only four dimensions, needs 11 (mathematically)

The vibration of the string determines the charge and mass of the greater particle.

Other theories/discoveries

Special theory of relativity

General theory of relativity

Quantum mechanics

-Quantum gravity

Super gravity

Kaluza-Klein theory (more dimensions)

Supersymmetry

Blackholes

Importance

Next step in our growing understanding of the universe

You never know what it will lead up to

Can be useful for other theories

Around this time, there were attempts to show that supergravity was finite through renormalization (because the uncertainty principle showed that pairs of particles and antiparticles in space would have infinite energy) and so string theory was ignored

In 1984, interest was revived because it showed that string theory might be able to explain existence of particles

Introduction

String theory, or sometimes known as the Theory of Everything, is a theory that has revolutionized modern physics.

It attempts to unify all elements of particle physics into one grand theory, using the elements of general relativity and quantum mechanics

**STRING THEORY**

An average string is about 10 to the power of -33 centimetres long. To put that into perspective, if an atom were to be magnified to the size of the solar system, its string would be the size of a tree.

**By Salma, Juneh, and Maggie**

Sun

Sun warps spacetime, creating "funnel" for earth and other planets to ride on, orbiting sun

Earth

Earth also warps spacetime, and moon rides on "funnel"

Uncertainty Principle equation

The idea is that within the curvature of spacetime, there are tiny, microscopic dimensions that are curled up, invisible to us humans (above are examples of Calabi-Yau shapes)

Unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics would mean a closer step to describing how the universe works

Resources

String Theory Timeline

1968: Gabriele Veneziano first proposes the dual resonance model.

1970: String theory is created when physicists interpret Veneziano’s model as describing a universe of vibrating strings.

1971: Supersymmetry is incorporated, creating superstring theory.

1974: String theories are shown to require extra dimensions. An object similar to the graviton is found in superstring theories.

1984: The first superstring revolution begins when it’s shown that anomalies are absent in superstring theory.

1985: Heterotic string theory is developed. Calabi-Yau manifolds are shown to compactify the extra dimensions.

1995: Edward Witten proposes M-theory as unification of superstring theories, starting the second superstring revolution. Joe Polchinski shows branes are necessarily included in string theory.

1996: String theory is used to analyze black hole thermodynamics, matching earlier predictions from other methods.

www.superstringtheory.com/

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/why-is-string-theory-so-important.html

http://www.phys.ens.fr/~troost/beyondstringtheory/faq.html

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/29dc2da2-efd5-3d06-4d2e64931ba46d2d/

http://www.quora.com/What-will-happen-if-String-Theory-is-experimentally-proven

http://www.perimeterinstitute.ca/research/research-areas/quantum-fields-and-strings/more-string-theory

http://timerime.com/en/timeline/137542/String+Theory/

http://string-theory.wikidot.com/timelines

http://whystringtheory.com/motivation/quantum-field-theory/

http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/the-history-of-the-string-theory

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/the-basic-elements-of-string-theory.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_theory#History

http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/curiosity/topics/michio-kaku-string-theory.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_theory#Early_results

Hawking, S. (1996). A Brief History of Time (p. 173, 57), New York: Bantam Books Trade.