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Salma Salhi

on 25 November 2014

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Transcript of STRING THEORY

Scientific Summary
Brief Summary of General Relatvity:
Combines space and time into a "fabric"
Curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present
Gravity is caused by objects with mass such as planets and stars warping space-time
The vibration of the string determines the charge and mass of the greater particle.
Quantum Mechanics
Brief Summary of Quantum Mechanics:
Deals with physical phenomena at nanoscopic scales
The more accurately you try to measure the position of a particle, the less accurately you can measure its speed
String theory aims to explain all types of observed elementary particles using quantum states of these strings.
Uncertainty Principle
String Theory
Strings have only one dimension (infinitely thin piece of string)
Strings found inside quarks
"Grand Unified Theory" of the fundamentals of matter, and what makes up the world around us
Doesn't work with only four dimensions, needs 11 (mathematically)
The vibration of the string determines the charge and mass of the greater particle.
Other theories/discoveries
Special theory of relativity
General theory of relativity
Quantum mechanics
-Quantum gravity
Super gravity
Kaluza-Klein theory (more dimensions)
Next step in our growing understanding of the universe
You never know what it will lead up to
Can be useful for other theories
Around this time, there were attempts to show that supergravity was finite through renormalization (because the uncertainty principle showed that pairs of particles and antiparticles in space would have infinite energy) and so string theory was ignored
In 1984, interest was revived because it showed that string theory might be able to explain existence of particles
String theory, or sometimes known as the Theory of Everything, is a theory that has revolutionized modern physics.
It attempts to unify all elements of particle physics into one grand theory, using the elements of general relativity and quantum mechanics

An average string is about 10 to the power of -33 centimetres long. To put that into perspective, if an atom were to be magnified to the size of the solar system, its string would be the size of a tree.
By Salma, Juneh, and Maggie
Sun warps spacetime, creating "funnel" for earth and other planets to ride on, orbiting sun
Earth also warps spacetime, and moon rides on "funnel"
Uncertainty Principle equation
The idea is that within the curvature of spacetime, there are tiny, microscopic dimensions that are curled up, invisible to us humans (above are examples of Calabi-Yau shapes)
Unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics would mean a closer step to describing how the universe works
String Theory Timeline
1968: Gabriele Veneziano first proposes the dual resonance model.
1970: String theory is created when physicists interpret Veneziano’s model as describing a universe of vibrating strings.
1971: Supersymmetry is incorporated, creating superstring theory.
1974: String theories are shown to require extra dimensions. An object similar to the graviton is found in superstring theories.
1984: The first superstring revolution begins when it’s shown that anomalies are absent in superstring theory.
1985: Heterotic string theory is developed. Calabi-Yau manifolds are shown to compactify the extra dimensions.
1995: Edward Witten proposes M-theory as unification of superstring theories, starting the second superstring revolution. Joe Polchinski shows branes are necessarily included in string theory.
1996: String theory is used to analyze black hole thermodynamics, matching earlier predictions from other methods.
Hawking, S. (1996). A Brief History of Time (p. 173, 57), New York: Bantam Books Trade.
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