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Sarah Schoenbaum

on 16 April 2014

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Transcript of Robotics

How have robotics changed over time?
What are the different ethical issues about robotics?
What are the details of robotics?
Robots=mechanical device that operates automatically
of robots

Robotics not the robot, robotics what you do with the robot
Robotics also some other electronic devices, not only robots
Robotics is programing, building, and doing things with the robot or other device
Robotics doesn't include all electronics
Only includes electronics with moving mechanical parts
Examples of electronics that aren't robotics: portable satellite terminal, remote controls, laptops, special effects, stopwatches to time races in sports
Some robots/ electronics built to mimic human operators
Example: some engineers program robotic arms to build cars
Robots are powered by electric motors
Electric motor=machine that changes electric power to mechanical power
Work using magnetic field
Magnetic field produced by electric current
Size of electric motor varies widely
Size could be small to power a stopwatch, or big to power an airplane
Robots perform a variety of tasks: making plastic containers, wrapping ice cream bars, assembling electronic circuits
typical robot performs a task by following a set of instructions that specifies exactly what it must do to complete a job
instructions stored in the robot's control center (computer or part of a computer)
computer sends commands to robot’s motorized joints
motorized joints function like human joints to move various parts of the robot
Some robots have grippers
Grippers=joints used to lift objects and use tools
2-5 fingers on grippers
Some robots have magnetic scoops for hands
Engineers created mobile robots with cameras for sight and electronic sensors for touch
Space robots perform tasks humans aren't capable of doing in space
Robots can work in unsafe places ex: volcanoes, far away planets
Scientists sent robots to explore Earth’s ocean floor and the surface of Mars
Viking I, Sojourner, and the Voyager II are robots sent to explore other planets (Sojourner went to Mars)
Astronauts on space shuttles use a manipulator system
Manipulator system has a shoulder, elbow, and wrist that form an arm
Little commercial success in robotics industry
Many industries supposed to be the greatest customers showed little interest
Reason partly financial
A) economy in period of recession
B) interest rates were high
C) possible users reluctant to pay high costs
Reason partly potential loss of jobs
A) people feared robots would cause unemployment
B) robots could replace humans on the production line
Reason partly some robots aren't reliable for long-term use
A) they broke down
B) errors in software
C) required extensive changes to be made by purchaser before could perform as expected
Last reason, people didn't know how or where to use robots
A) there was little knowledge or experience about robots
B) robots were put on wrong jobs
C) When failed to perform , users were disappointed and gave up on them
1981 - 1982
U.S robotics industry stayed small
Its rivals in other countries grew
Japan became world leader in research, development, uses to which robots were put
Japan products drew in many American customers
Many robots purchased in U.S.A came from abroad
Sales of U.S-made robots increased 10% from previous year
Only one American manufacturing company made money
Japan gained more money than the U.S
Imports from Japan almost doubled from 1982-1983
By early 1984, 65% of all operating robots worldwide from Japan
Other nations manufacturing robots West Germany, Norway, Sweden
Robots imported in U.S totaled 3,411with a value of $88.4 million
2,800 of this from Japan
Japan almost doubled robot sales from 1893-1894
14,500 installed in U.S by the end of 1984
4,231 industrial robots valued over $300 million shipped
Educational, hobby, and recreational robot shipment totaled 1,300 value of $3.2 million
Growth in robotics in U.S more than previous years combined in 1984 and 1985
20,000 robots installed in the U.S.A by the end of 1986
Half of these in the auto industry
3 major types of major uses for robots in auto industry: improving quality, removing human workers from harmful working environments, cost savings
Other robot jobs: moving large components from one assembly line to another, spray painting, applying glue to windshields and rear windows when attaching them to the body
Welding in auto industry almost completely robotized by 1986
Acceptance of robots expected to increase
Jobs will be lost to robots, but more jobs will be created
More advanced robots and technologies will be created
Growth in robotics will either be slow or fast
Robots will most likely be used for more human purposes
Growth in robotics slow until 1980s
At first, people were unsure about using robots and didn't know how they worked
Robots were put to work on the wrong jobs
All robots were bought from mostly Japan
In 1986 robots were put on jobs in the auto industry
Robotics Careers
1. design engineers
2. manufacturing and applications engineers
3. production and process planners
4. engineering technicians
5. computer programmers
6. sales people
7. research scientists
8. independent contractors
9. ocean and space scientists
Space Robots
There are now robots that perform tasks in space
Robots that assist Astronauts
Robots that travel to far away Planets
The Manipulator System
Has a shoulder, elbow, and wrist that form an arm
Used by astronauts when they fix satellites
Astronauts attach their feet to the arm
The arm moves astronauts to places hard to reach
Manipulator System
Viking I
Sent to Mars
Took pictures of the planet's surface
Its arm scooped up dirt and studied it
Recorded weather on Mars
Small rover sent to Mars
Moved across the surface of the planet
Studied rocks
Controlled by people on Earth
They use a radio to tell it what to do
Voyager II
Sent to explore planets far from Earth
Traveled past Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Took pictures of these planets
Sent the pictures to Earth by radio waves
Robots taking over human jobs
Also an issue in the past
One reason robots weren't selling in 1980's was potential loss of jobs
People feared robots would cause unemployment
Robots could replace humans on production line
Robots can be programed to do human jobs
Humans scared robots will take over their jobs
Robots programmed to work faster and more efficiently
Robots built with human arms scanners and sensors to do work
Since robots do the work better, humans fired replaced with robots
By Sarah Schoenbaum
Mr. Lindquist class
Robots build/weld cars
Shaped like a robot arm
Laser vision system makes robot places pieces in correct places
Now only robots do welding, no human operators
Robots also do other jobs humans don't do anymore
People think robots doing the work helps people by going faster and doing better work
Helps some people in that way but doesn't help others
Robots doing this work makes the people that did that work before lose their jobs
Robots were eventually put to work on jobs
It is believed that although robots might take over some jobs, others will be created
NXT Robots
NXT robots built with legos, motors, connectors, and much more
You can build an arm or a scoop out of legos, attach it to a motor to make it work
First build a base with legos around the brick
Then attach wheels, motors
Brick=the block you upload the programing to so the robot can perform tasks
Connect a wire to the motor and brick to make the motor work
You can use legos to attach a back wheel to keep the robot stable
To make the robot stand, either build legs and feet, connect it to a motor, or put the brick upright, build from there, have 2 wheels under the brick like legs, attach a back wheel to keep it from falling
When programming, first choose a block from the programming palette
The most common used blocks: moving block, sound block, loop block, switch block
Drag the block to the work area
Connect blocks to create a program
Connect a usb wire to the brick and computer to download a program
Loop Block=repeats program
Sound Block=allows robot to make a variety of sounds
Moving Block=allows robot to move in any direction, make turns, also moves arms
Should robots be required to follow an ethical code?
When programming a robot, programmers are able to make the robot do anything they desire
With this freedom, robots might be programmed to do bad things
This issue states that there should be laws to prevent programming harmful things
If there were laws, they wouldn't allow robots cause harm, and programmers to program harmful things
The only harm that should be allowed is for protection purposes
Asimov's Three Laws Of Robotics
1. A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the first law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such protection does not conflict with the first or second laws.
These laws have been in books, but aren't followed by programmers or robots
If there were official laws, would you want them to be like this?
I believe we need laws of robotics
Robotics seems like a modern invention, but its in Ancient Greek mythology
The Greek god Hephaestus was a master builder
Created mechanical men to help with his work
One myth says Hephaestus fashioned Talos for King Minos of Crete
Talos=gigantic man/robot made of bronze
Talos guarded Crete shores until Jason and the Argonauts arrived with the witch Media
She literally pulled the plug on Talos
bewitched the stopper that held the fluids of life inside Talos
collapsed as fluids flowed out of his bronze body
Q1. What are the details of robotics?

Q2. How have robotics changed over time?

Q3. What are the different ethical issues of robotics?
Full transcript