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Sleep

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by

Chiara Erfurt

on 3 April 2014

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Transcript of Sleep

Definition of Sleep
Brain Introduction
Sleep Deprivation
Effects of too much Sleep
Sleep Durations
Stages of Sleep
Nervous System
Narcotic Drugs and their Effects on Sleep
Our Sleep Experiment
Sleeping Disorders
Brain Process during Sleep
Survey
Overall Conclusion
Bibliography
Sleep
By Chiara Erfurt, Iqra Nowshari and Vinisha Kalevaru
To what extent does sleep affect the
human body in relation to the
nervous system?
Sleeping disorders
1. Dyssomnias
2. Parasomnias
problems with amount of sleep, timing and quality of sleep
Abnormal disturbances during sleep
The Stages of Sleep
Stage 1

Stage 2

Transition period between wakefulness & sleep
Can easily be woken up
App. (5-10min)
Experience 'Hypnagogic Jerk' or 'Hypnagogic hallucinations'
High amplitude waves
Lasts app. 20min
Heart rate is slowed down
Temperature is decreased
Relaxation of muscles
Preparation for deep sleep
Exhibition of sleep spindles & K-complexes
Stage 3
A.k.a delta sleep
Deep sleep
Bed-wetting & sleepwalking occurs
If awakened, may feel disoriented
Brain recovers from daily activities
Stage 5-REM

Begins app. 90min after sleep
Dreaming occurs
Increase of
-eye movement
-brain activity
Voluntary muscles are paralyzed by glycine
Two basic states
1. REM-Rapid eye movement
2. NREM-Non-rapid eye movement
Outline of the Presentation
"A sleepy person's brain
works harder

and
accomplishes less
"
Daniel J. DeNoon
WebMD report, 2000
Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System - PNS

Central Nervous System - CNS
Somatic Nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System - ANS

Sympathetic Nervous System

Para-sympathetic Nervous System
Narcotics and their effect on sleep
Definition of Sleep

Insomnia
Narcolepsy
Nightmares
Involuntary Nervous System
Narcotic [nahr-
kot
-ik]
difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep
Insomnia can occur at any age, but it is particularly common for elderly
triggered by stress, anxiety and/or depression
causes the same problems and brain activities as normal sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation
Decreased Performance and Alertness
Reducing your nighttime sleep by one and a half hours could result in a reduction of daytime alertness by

32%.
Poor Quality of Life
Causes of Sleep Deprivation
Brain Process During Sleep
Size of brain cells are reduced - shrink by 60%


More space created between cells


Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) washes freely through brain tissues
Wastes are removed e.g. Toxins
Resting
Sorting & Reorganizing of gathered information
Dreaming
"To switch-off"
Relaxation
Partially or completely unconscious
How do we get a stable sleep?
Restoration
caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, psychoactive drugs (cocaine, methamphetamines, opium, heroin)
'Mutual inhibition'
between sleep and wake-stimulating neurons
In the brain
Neurons stimulating sleep

Neurons stimulating wakefulness
Neurons responsible for wakefulness shut down activity of neurons stimulating sleep - vice versa
=> stable period of sleep or wakefulness
Areas in brain stem & hypothalamus send awakening
signals to cerebral cortex
=>Activates cortex
=>Promotes wakefulness
Naturally obtainable stimulant found in food, drinks & medications
Found naturally in over 60 plants such as coffee beans, cocoa pods, tea leaves and kola nuts
Globally most widely consumed stimulant
Consumed on a daily basis
Caffeine
Lack of motivation and energy to involve yourself in activities
Little enjoyment and success in life
Automobile Accidents/Injuries
According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA):
each year drowsy driving is responsible for at least
100,000
automobile crashes,
71,000
injuries, and
1,550
fatalities
Sleep Durations
Sleep Survey
Aim
To determine sleeping patterns of adolescents between the ages of 12-18 and what effects them.
Results
Age
Effects on sleep due to caffeine
time of the day consumed
amount consumed
individuals sensitivity to caffeine
depends on
General Visceral Nervous System
Our Sleep Experiment
Aim


To experience & compare changes of a person
not sleeping at all
sleeping less than required
sleeping the required amount of time
Carry information
from the body

to the CNS
Carry information
from the CNS

to the body
Inability of brain to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally
Person cannot resist falling asleep
May happen while having a conversation or eating
Affects about
1
in
2,000
people
Typically develops during the teen years and lasts for life
Unknown cause
Symptoms includes brief episodes of muscle weakness
Number of Hypocretin-producing Neurons in the Brain
Too much sleep
Stimulating wakefulness
-
Tuberomammillary nucleus

-orexin/hypocretin
During sleep
-Neurons in the
Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus
VLPO activate

-
Galanin
&
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid
(GABA) are produced

=>Shut down activity in arousal areas

How Caffeine Works
An adenosine antagonist
Adenosine aids the onset of sleep & calms CNS
Caffeine binds to adenosine receptors without activating them
With adenosine receptors blocked, other neurotransmitter levels are increased
Normal sleep stages altered
can lead to...
Nicotine
Relation to sleep?
Alcohol
Chichi
Vinisha
Iqra
12:30
18:30
00:40
07:25
12:15
18:00
06:30
12:00
14:20
125/80 127/81 124/81
157/100 140/88 133/75
xxx xxx 128/68
137/84 138/82 170/104
127/82 118/74 150/92
136/78 126/79 140/86
133/93
118/74
127/67
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
Brings physiological response in threatening situations (fight or flight response)
Adrenergic nerve endings=>noradrenaline
Sympathetic nerves
-increase heart rate
-dilate pupils
-constrict blood vessels
Affected by sleep deprivation
Maintains normal functioning of body in non-threatening situations
keeps body relaxed & unstressed
Cholinergic endings=>acetylcholine
Parasympathetic nerves:
-Dilate blood vessels => increases blood flow
-Reduce heart rate
-Constrict pupils
-Constrict bronchioles
-Stimulate salivary gland secretions


Effects specifically on the Brain
1/3 of human life
Psychiatric problems, including depression and other mood disorders
Mental impairment
Fetal and childhood growth retardation
affects many regions in the forebrain
includes
neocortex
,
amygdala
& the
hippocampus
mediate cognitive, emotional & memory functions
hallucinations induced after 48 hours
Overall Conclusion
Factors of Oversleeping/ Why does it occur?
What is considered oversleeping?
Health Effects of too much Sleep
Alcoholic beverages contain ethanol
Considered a calming drug
Helps transition into sleep, quality of sleep is fragmented
Increases nighttime awakenings
Prevents REM and deep sleep
Lowers amount of sleep cycles
Is a diuretic, encourages losing fluid
Can too much of a good thing be considered bad?
Region of brain controlling the circadian rhythm:

Suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN

Sleep disorders (e.g. Hypersomnia)
Alcohol
Prescription medications
Depression
Pleasure in sleeping a lot
Length
Effect
10-20 min.
30 min.

60 min.
90 min.
Naps
boost in alertness and energy
non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
best improvement for remembering facts, faces and names
includes slow-wave sleep (the deepest kind)
full cycle of sleep
improvement of emotional and procedural memory
avoids sleep inertia
Suggested Sleep Durations
Criteria of the Experiment
Facial appearance
Blood pressure
Feelings/Social interaction
Academic performance
Appetite
Cravings
Other noticeable/surprising factors

Cluster of neurons, located in hypothalamus
Governs timing of Circadian rhythm
ya
hangover groggy feeling (inertia)
after that feeling dissapears the restorative benefits become apparent
Amount of sleep required varies significantly over course of your
lifetime
Depends on
age
&
activity level,

general health, lifestyle habits
Individual needs:
-Long sleepers might need
8-9
hours of sleep,
-Short sleepers might only need
6-7
General information
Age group
Amount of Sleep (hours)
24-hour sleep recordings of two individuals
control (top)= a person with a normal sleep pattern
bottom = a person with untreated narcolepsy
About 100.000 to 200.000 neurons in the hypothalamus produce hypocretins
Bad dream occurring during REM
Results in feelings of terror, fear, distress or extreme anxiety
May be a normal reaction to stress
Frequent occurrences becomes a disorder
Same brain process as normal dreaming
Diabetes
Obesity
Headaches
new born
Toddlers (up to 9 years of age)
Teenagers (14-19 years)
Adults (up to age 45)
Elders (up to 70 years of age)
up to 16
about 11
about 8-9
around 7
around 6
Delta waves emerge
Transition period between light sleep & very deep sleep
Stage 4
1->2->3->4->3->2->REM
Cycle does
not
occur in a sequence
Other Psychoactive Drugs
Cocaine
Methamphetamines
Heroin
When and for how long?
Re
su
lts
Stimulant found in the plant family Solanaceae
Mimics neurotransmitter acetylcholine
Stimulates production of dopamine & glutamate
Stimulates adrenal glands to release adrenaline
Temporary feelings of relaxation, reduces stress, anxiety, pain
Nicotine cravings may cause sleep disturbances
Stimulants make it hard to fall asleep
Smokers have increased sleep latency
Conditions
prevents neurotransmitters from being reabsorbed; euphoria
increase in sleep latency
experience much less REM sleep and SWS
Consumption of any kind of psychoactive drugs was strictly prohibited

Vinisha
Chiara
Iqra
9h sleep
4h sleep
No sleep
Criteria
Facial
Appearance
Feelings/Social Interactions
As usual
->No
improvement
Happy
No fights,
unproblematic interactions
Normal
insomnia, restlessness
withdrawal symptoms: anxiety, nightmare, long amounts of deep sleep
other
noticeable/
surprising factors
-Problems falling asleep
-no problems getting up
Use of electronic devices prevented us from falling asleep
Blood pressures moderately inaccurate
Measurement of BP not at the same time
Only 3 subjects, may not be valid
Although only conducted for 48h
=>significantly demonstrated effects of sleeping less than required and not at all.
proves high importance sleep carries
One immediately feels necessity of sleep when sleeping notably less than required and not sleeping at all.
Did we make it?
Method
Sources of Error and Evaluation & Improvements
Not everyone answered every question
=>Not very accurate
Not equal age groups
=>Should have planned who answers the survey
Should have included a question for gender to see if sex effected sleep in any ways
6
11
9
24
17
9
8
Average amount slept on a weekday
Medications
Caffeine
Nicotine
Alcohol
other Psychoactive drugs
Schoolwork
Noise
Light
Temperature
None of the above
Other
Factors that affect Sleep
Feeling fully rested after sleep
Regular Sleeping Pattern
How much the Quality of Sleep affects School performance on a Scale of 1-10
18th-21st of March 2014
Fluidsurvey.com
Asked NMS Students between the ages 12-18 through social media websites
Added definitions for terms that not everyone might know
tiredness, moody, easily annoyed
Solutions/Preventions:
Increased brain activity
Set an alarm
Don't hit the snooze button
Know the suggested amount of sleep
Lack of energy and concentration
Term was coined by Galen to refer to substances that have a
numbing
paralyzing
sedating
sleep promoting
euphoria inducing and
pain relieving effect
acute - a few days to a week
chronic- months & years
PET Scans of Brain Activity
EEG Wave Recordings of Brain Activity
*sleeping excessive amounts*
"A group of syndromes that cause disturbance in the patient's
amount
,
quality
or
timing
of sleep. It may also effect behaviors or physiological conditions associated with sleep"
NREM sleep
Slow wave sleep stage in a state of low consciousness
Believed to be an acting out of a dream but proved to be false
Sleepwalkers wander around aimlessly, appearing dazed & uncoordinated
Remember nothing of the episode once they wake up
Percentage of childhood sleepwalking increases to 45% if one parent was affected, and 60% if both parents were affected
disturbed sleeping pattern
withdrawal symptoms: nightmares, restlessness
Sleep is a vital process for all human beings, as proven through our experiment and through extensive scientific research.
Too less as well as too much sleep can cause severe health problems, therefore an appropriate amount of sleep is required for the proper function of brain and entire nervous system.
Thank you for listening!
Marijuana
1
11
7
14
8
48
17
23
18
5
26
decreased REM sleep, increased SWS
decreased sleep latency
unchanged TST
withdrawal: REM rebound
Conclusion
Majority chose schoolwork as a factor affecting their sleep
Many sleep less than required
Almost half of the students considered themselves sleep deprived
Only 12% have regular sleeping pattern

felt normal, didn't feel like communicating much
opposite of the desired effect
similar health problems as sleep deprivation
sleep drunkenness
10 hours or more per night is considered as too much for adults and most teenagers
1
3
9
14
15
12
13
8
3
3
9
Blood Pressure
Academic Performance
Appetite
Cravings
yoo
sup nigga
difficulties listening and reading
hungrier than usually
Chocolate and coffee
moderately hungry during the night
difficulties concentrating
Chocolate and chips
Don't remember how I fell asleep
48 hours
13th of March-15th of March
Thursday 6am to Saturday 6am
Conclusion
Sources of Error and Evaluation
Memories stored in LTM
Brain Introduction
surprisingly fell refreshed in the first 2 hours after waking up
strive for a balanced and healthy sleep cycle
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