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The Evolution of Greek Philosophy
Transcript of The Evolution of Greek Philosophy
Greek Philosophy Erin Doucet
October 4th, 2012 Pre-Socratic Philosophy Pre-Socratic Figures Pre-Socratic Cont. Pluralists
Not just one thing, but many. Empedocles, c.493-c.433 B.C. Additional Pre-Socratic Figures Sophists Thales of Miletus, c.624-c.547 B.C. Anaximander, c.611-c.546 B.C. Heraclitus, c.540-c.480 B.C. All four elements can exist in 1 object.
If something is composed of water, it still has remnants of the other elements. Of the first to theorize that all four elements existed in everything.
Began philosophizing about morals and human elements, such as Love and Strife, and how the two could impact the world. Debate over this group being categorized as philosophers.
Possessed good debate skills.
Could make people believe day is night and black is white.
Usually charged a fee for their services.
Thought of themselves as teachers and businessmen who enjoyed helping ambitious male citizens become successful. Period of first "thinkers" of Ancient Greece. Why is it referred to as Pre-Socratic? Socrates had such an influence on Greek culture and society.
This group paved the way for many scientific theories.
Beginning ideas that disembarked from superstition and into the realm of nature and reality. Regarded as the first official philosopher and part of the Milesian School of Philosophy.
Theorized that everything is composed of water.
Water was the basis for all things on Earth.
Proposed that water was the most important of the 4 basic elements (Earth, air, water, and fire). Believed that there was more than just the 4 elements.
Theorized about matter called "apeiron," which means "The Boundless."
His theory of matter would later be put into perspective by Albert Einstein's "General Theory of Relativity." Anaximenes, c.570-c.500 B.C. He was a pupil of Anaximander and part of the Milesian School.
Theorized that if air was dense it would solidify; modern scientists will argue that solid matter is energy in its densest, and not air. Believed everything was composed of fire.
Combustibility was the reason for the soul and the human spirit. Pythagoras, c.570-c.490 B.C. Theorized about something he referred to as "Music of the spheres."
Mathematical order and music were connected and somehow the cosmos played a musical tune as they orbited. Leucippus and Democritus First to theorize about tiny particles called atoms.
Leucippus claimed that atoms were invisible to the human eye but it's what made things real.
Democritus claimed the atom could not be divided. This changed in 1945. Sophistry - a method of argumentation that seems clever but is actually flawed or dishonest Had this idea that anything goes; if it feels good do it!
His view on the Gods - "You don't know if they exist; if you don't know they exist then they don't matter in day-to-day life."
Was charged with impiety (disrespecting the Gods and Greek law). Protagoras, c.490-c.420 B.C. An accomplished public speaker.
He wrote a rhetorical handbook that is now lost.
His rhetorical style was unique in that he incorporated musical effects and rhythms.
The comedic poet, Aristophanes, ridiculed his style in a few of his comedies. Gorgias, c.480-c.376 B.C. Earned a lot of money teaching in Athens.
His focus was religion and moral themes.
Like Empedocles, he too believed the four elements existed in everything.
Because of his theories of origins, he was classified as an atheist.
He was often ridiculed by Plato. Prodicus of Ceos The Academy Socrates, c.470-c.399 B.C.
Plato, 428-348 B.C.
Aristotle, 384-322 B.C. Socrates had a basic Greek education.
He had a deep appreciation for Athenian religious customs.
Known for his arguing and exposing misconceptions.
Accused of corrupting youth and eventually charged with impiety.
Sentenced to death by drinking poison from a Hemlock plant. Socrates Plato Founded the Academy.
Came from aristocratic family and was well educated.
Inspired by Socrates' charisma.
They became close associates and friends.
Left Athens soon after Socrates was sentenced to death. Joined the Academy where he contributed 20 years to learning and teaching.
Occasionally had differences with Plato.
His teachings included truth, reason, and morals. Aristotole The School of Athens by Raphael