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The American Revolution
Transcript of The American Revolution
The American Revolution
Impact to the world
America, who had begun by protesting taxes on tea, sugar, and paper, had won a revolution and formed the United State of America. This caused all the other colonist to start their own revolution, for a long time, Britain were troubled by its colonist.
The Declaration of Independence did not end the war, it only made King George more angry. It caused the British government to enlarge the British army, and the war continued for seven more years. When French suddenly joined the war on the American side, the British were in trouble. The British lost an important battle at Yorktown, in 1781, and Sir Guy Carleton abandoned the last British stronghold-New York, in1783. The revolutionary war have ended.
The Declaration of
The American Revolution was underway, while fighting
continued on the battlefield, the Continental Congress continued to meet. Some of the most important people in the colonies (Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams) decided to draft a statement that would declare their independence from Britain. It is an important statement of principles of democracy and freedom.
Battle of Lexington
The opening shots of the American Revolution were fired on Lexington Green, as the British soldiers told the Americans to leave. And because of excitement, a shot was fired, caused the British line to fire their musket at the Americans. Only few were killed or wounded, however, the British force was attacked by Americans from all over the countryside and many soldiers were killed. The War of the American Revolution had begun.
The Stamp and Tea Act
British want to tax Americans because they had stirred up trouble with both the French and the native people which make British involved in military action. The Stamp Act of 1765 made Americans pay a small tax, where you have to buy stamps and put them on everything you buy. It enraged Americans because they were being taxed without their consent. The act was a disaster, mobs destroyed the houses of government official and few officials were brave enough to force people to use the stamps. It was repealed in 1776. However, the British still wanted to raise money. They brought a new act which taxes the Americans on imported goods, but is repealed again except for the tax on tea.
British soldiers were send to America, and the Americans have to pay for their lodging, protest were everywhere. In 1770, British troops misunderstood an order and fired their gun into a group of protesters, few people were killed. After that, violent incidents proved America was on the edge of revolution.
Boston Tea Party
A group of protesters who called themselves the "son of liberty" dressed as Mohawks, want on the British boat and threw tea into the river to protest against the new tea act. The Boston tea party was well-organized, and was not the action of angry mobs.
France immensely helped the revolution by setting up a major aid program for the americans. Even though they spent enough money foolishly to bankrupt themselves, they sent munitions, men and funds to the Americans (one million from allied each country.) The goods were smuggled through ports in the west indies and the Dutch republic.
Even though Spain was not an official ally of America (there were informal allies when Spain declared war on Britain in1779.) They did secretly help the americans in some ways. The main way they helped was through smuggling goods and arms to the revolutionaries. Also general Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid was also Governor of Louisiana. He flushed the British out of Florida and kept a trade route open for the Americans.
The Revolution Succeeds
German mercenaries or "Hessians" were in service of the British during the war. As the Hessians were paid as a unit and not an individuals, Britain founded it easier to borrow money and hire than to train troops for battle. Around 29,839 served during the revolution and 17,313 returned to Germany. Of the remaining around 7000 died and others settled in North America.
Free blacks and slaves alike fought for both sides of the conflict being promised freedom and land in return, though many chose to side with the revolutionaries. The first death of the Revolution was considered to be Crispus Attucks, a black man. In the effort of trying to gather more troops both sides called each other liars and promised to do better than the other side. In the end Britan kept their word and freed around 10,000 slaves while the US north freed many of their slaves, there were few freed slaves in the south.
Many of the tribes rejected pleas to remain neutral and took sides, most of them with the British. Though the tribes east of the Mississippi River took the sides of the Colonists. Still some stayed neutral thinking there was little value participating in an European war, fearing reprisals from the other side. Joseph Brant, leader of the Mohawk tribe was the most prominent leader against the rebels, leading a small army of 300 natives and 100 loyalists in raids against frontier settlements in New York and Pennsylvania. They were later forced to retreat to Canada after a rebel army destroyed their villages and burnt all their crops.
George Washington, born February 22, 1732 was to become the first president of the United States, (1789-1797) after defeating the british redcoats and pushing them out of the U.S. He was also one of the founding fathers and presided over the drafting and signing of the constitution. He was voted into office by 69 unanimous votes and served 2 terms. He established the U.S. cabinet system and delivering the inaugural address. He was hailed as the father of the country.
Liverpool born American merchant Robert Morris was the financial backbone of the revolution. Not nearly as well known as people like George Washington and John Adams, he was the head of the Continental Congress's finance committee. He had to come up with $20,000 a day for five years to finance the revolution, no easy feat even now and in the end though the revolution succeeded he was arrested and thrown in debtor's jail. He was released and lived quietly until his death.
Thomas Jefferson, born April 13 1743 was the third president of the United States and the first secretary of state serving under George Washington. During the revolution it was he who drafted the deceleration of independence in the end though most people thought John Adams should have wrote it. Jefferson viewed the revolution as the american people breaking away form their "mother country" Britain.
King George the Third
George William Fredrick, the leader of Great Britain at the time, he had basically brought the war on himself. The revolution happened because he did not give the Americans any seats in parliament, their god given right as Englishmen and they were heavily taxed because Britain said so. Though evidence suggests that he had little responsibility in the war, it also suggests that he needed more control of his ministers.
Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant, born March 1743 was a Mohawk military and political leader, based in New York, and was a close ally to Great Britain before and after the war. As a war chief of the six nations, when the war broke out it was him leading troops. He lead 400 men( 300 Iroquois and 100 loyalists) on daring raids against frontier settlements of the rebels. His alleged association to many massacres gave him the name "Monster Brant." He was one of the few native americans to go to London and meet the king. In the end, He was forced to retreat to Canada after rebels burnt the villages of his people down and destroyed their winter crops.
Forever the black stain of American History, Benedict Arnold, born January 14, 1741 is the most well known traitor of the revolutionary war. In the beginning, like Napoleon he quickly rose through the ranks through acts of bravery and amazing strategy, he faced the same problem. He was promoted quickly to Brigadier General but like napoleon could not get promoted further. With himself falling into debt, he slowly lost trust in the U.S. Then the british approached him. They wanted Arnold to turn traitor to the British side. They offered 20,000 pounds and a place in the british military.To gain trust Arnold offered to surrender West Point. But his plans were exposed and he was captured.