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Energy intake and expenditure

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Cheri Williams

on 11 March 2015

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Transcript of Energy intake and expenditure

Describe & explain intake and expenditure in sports performance
Energy input comes from the food and drink you consume. There are four major components to energy output: resting metabolic rate(RMR), dietary thermogenesis (DT), physical activity(PA) and adaptive thermogenesis (AT).
You are in energy balance when the amount of energy
you take in (energy input) equals the amount of energy
you expend (energy output). You will neither be losing
nor gaining weight.
The four major
components to energy output

Resting metabolic rate
(RMR) can account for up to 60–75 % of total energy output and represents the largest component of your total daily energyexpenditure.
Dietary thermogenesis
refers to the energy expended above that of RMR for the processes of digestion,absorption, transport and storage of food.
Physical activity
represents the most variable component of your total energy expenditure. This is the additional energy expended above RMR and DT, and will obviously contribute more to total daily energy expenditure in active individuals.
Adaptive thermogenesis
is energy expenditure that occurs as a result of environmental or physiological stresses placed on your body, such as a change in temperature that may require you to respond by shivering or stress that causes anxiety or fidgeting.

Positive and Negitive
Energy Balance
energy intake exceeds expenditure
, this is referred
to as
positive energy balance
weight is gained
intake is less
than requirements to meet
, the additional energy required will be
drawn from your body’s fat reserves and
weight will be
. This is referred to as
negative energy balance
Fuels for activity
Protein -
is used during prolonged periods of exercise and towards the latter stages of endurance events e.g. A marathon.
Fats and carbohydrates -
are stored in the muscles as glycogen, this is the main energy fuel for exercising muscles. Exercising muscles use glucose as a fuel, particularly as the intensity of the activity begins to increases.
If energy is not replaced as it is used up, your muscles will be unable to maintain their rate of work and the intensity of the activity will need to be reduced or stopped as fatigue sets in.
Energy Intake and Expenditure in sport
Methods of measuring an athlete energy expenditure
Energy expenditure Is measured by
calorimetry, essentially through the measurement of
heat production.

Direct calorimetry (DC)
measures the amount
of heat produced by the body. It requires the use of
expensive piece of equipment involving a
sealed, airtight chamber where heat produced by the
subject warms water surrounding it.
Indirect calorimetry (IC)
estimates heat
production by measuring respiratory gases (oxygen
consumption and carbon dioxide production). It
can be undertaken using different techniques – the
most common is via mouthpiece and Douglas bag

Measuring of an athlete body composition
Skinfold analysis
- Skinfold callipers measure the amount of fat (fat immediately below the skin) in millimetres.
- This is considered to be one of the most accurate
methods of assessment of body composition. However, it is expensive and time consuming to perform and
can be potentially stressful to the athlete as it requires
him or her to be totally submerged in water.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis
- measures the resistance to the flow of an electrical
current through the body, using the fact that different
body tissues display different impedance to the flow
of the current.
Factors energy expenditure
- as you get older you start to lose more muscle tissue and is replaced with fat tissue Your basal metabolism reduces with increasing age.
- Males generally have greater muscle mass than females, so they generally have a higher basal metabolic rate.
- exposure to hot or cold climates causes an increase in basal metabolism to maintain your body’s internal temperature.
How can these affect Sports performance/Increase or decrease energy expenditure?
Can you think of any other Factors energy expenditure?
Complete sheet
Full sentence please!!!!
Assignment three-
PowerPoint presentation Energy in sports nutrition
Describe four ways in which energy foods can be measured.
Identify the three macronutrients. (the main sources of energy)/Give examples of food sources/state how much energy is released per gram.
Explain all of the above and give information on why an athlete has different sources of energy available to use and how it may affect sporting performance.
A detailed description of the method of measuring and athletes energy expenditure/body composition/Bodyweight/calorimetery.
Explain energy expenditure factors in relation to sports performance
Description of energy balance
describe the factors that affect energy balance (age, basal metabolic rate, gender, climate, physical activity)
identify the effect of each on energy balance.(Does increased physical activity increase or decrease energy expenditure?)
Explain why each factor affects energy expenditure and how it is the energy balance of an athlete.
Black= P 3,4
Red = M 1,2
Energy is measured in
(Joule - Is the international unit for energy) We use calories in Britain.

: Is a unit of energy equal to 1000 calories
: Is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules

The Conversion
1 Calorie = 4.2 Joules

1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4.2 Kilojoules (kjoules)
The four ways in which energy foods can be measured.
Full transcript