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- you learn the structures of a language first. When you know the form and structure of a language, you can use the language.
Form leads to use.
Communicative view of learning
- you need to communicate and that is why you learn the structures of the language.
Use leads to form.
Year 3 - 10 (soon year 1 - 10 )
Year 3 - 4 - Play and Collect
Year 5 - 7 - Collect and Develop
Year 8 - 9 - Develop and Master
Year 10 - Develop and Master
Is language acquisition research consistent with the Danish Common Objectives for English?
What is special about year 7 and year 9?
FSA - Leaving examination
There are a lot of conditions that decide how you should plan your lessons.
"Det altovervejende hovedformål med engelskundervisningen er, at eleverne skal blive gode til at kommunikere".
"Derfor er målet en undervisning, hvor så mange elever som muligt er aktive med alle fem færdigheder så meget af tiden som muligt".
Language and Language Use
Cultural and Social Conditions
How did you learn English?
Where did you learn English?
How do people in general learn a foreign language?
View of Language
The structural view of language
- you believe that form and structure are the most important features of a language.
The functional view of language
- you believe that function is the most important feature of a language.
Which teaching methods have been used?
The Grammar- Translation Method
The Direct Method
The Audio Lingual Method
The Silent Way
Total Physical Response
Communicative Language Teaching
Language Acquisition - a historical view
Language is learned through habit formation.
You learn through imitation.
Contrastive analysis - Lado.
Errors should be avoided.
Language is creative.
We have a language acquisition device that controls the acquisition and a universal grammar that decides in which order the language is acquired (Chomsky).
We learn a language to communicate.
We all have our own interlanguage that is systematic, variable and changeable.
Errors are important.
It is important to listen to and repeat correct language.
It doesn't really matter what you chose to work with - the pupils will learn the language anyway.
It is important that you provide the students with ample opportunities for communication.
What does it take to learn a language? Research
(read, listen) -Stephen Krashen - input + 1
(speak, write) - Merrill Swain
(communicate - negotiation of meaning) - Michael Long
In other words
is important and should be adjusted to the students' current academic level.
It is important that the students produce
in order for them to focus on the form of the language.
It is important that the students
so they can test hypotheses through negotiation of meaning with others.
There are currently around 1,5 billion speakers of English wordwide, of whom only 329 million are native speakers.
(2003 - David Crystal)
What about grammar?
Richard Schmidt (1990) says that nothing can be learned unless it has been noticed and cognitively processed.
Summing up - what does research tell us?
A functional view of language and a communicative view of learning lead to lessons based on communicative principles.
The goals are:
That the pupils acquire communicative competences through lots of input, output, interaction and focus on form.
That the pupils can communicate fluently and accurately both orally and in writing.
View of Learning
Communicative Activities - Tasks
Read and Run
Does the task require communication?
Is everyone active in solving the task?
Does everyone have information that other persons need?
Does the activity require that you reach an agreement?
Information gap activities
Opinion gap activities