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World War II
Transcript of World War II
Once Hitler took power, he began building up the army. By 1939, the German Army had 1.5 million well-trained men available for action. It also had 9 panzer divisions. Each one had 328 tanks, 8 support battalions and 6 artillery batteries.
He stopped payment on all war reparations.
In March 1938, Hitler orders the army into Austria, officially annexing (taking over, without a fight) the country. (BTW Hitler was Austrian, yet fought for Germany in WWI.)
In September of 1938, Hitler took over the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia on the German border, arguing that the people living there were rightfully German. No one stopped him.
How does this illustrate the policy of appeasement?
The German Government (The Wiemar Republic) printed more money to repay war reparations.
This led to rapid inflation, or devaluation, of the currency.
Price of goods and services rose dramatically.
Many people lost their savings trying to buy everyday essentials.
Rise of the Dictators
Fascism is a political system that stresses nationalism, militarism, and the belief that the government is more important than the individual.
Began in the 1920s with Benito Mussolini, spread to Spain and Germany in the 1930s (Franco and Hitler)
Fascists use propaganda and violence to achieve their goals and believe that a dictator should rule.
Fascist governments control all aspects of society and believe that a strong government is a must for national progress.
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
On August 23, 1939, Hitler and Stalin secretly agreed to attack Poland and divide the land between them.
This was not an alliance, as both leaders intensely disliked and distrusted one another, but they did agree not to fight.
With this non-aggression pact, Hitler could focus his attention on Western Europe.
On September 1st, 1939 Germany attacked Poland, officially beginning World War II.
Using "blitzkrieg" tactics, Germany conquered Western Poland in 17 days.
On September 17th, 1939, the Soviets invade from the east and conquered Eastern Poland in 20 days.
The Fall Of France
The Battle of Britain
During the 1920s (The Roaring Twenties) the American economy was on the rise!
People borrowed money to invest in the stock market and all was great for a decade.
But eventually, the bubble burst when lenders wanted repayments on their loans, forcing people to sell their stocks, thus causing a stock market crash.
This marked the beginning of the Great Depression, a world-wide economic slump that lasted through the 1930s.
Trade slowed between countries due to taxes placed on imported goods.
Also, some European countries lowered wages of its workers to help combat inflation, which angered the workers.
Lastly, U.S. banks wanted repayment on loans made to Germany for war reparations, which Germany couldn't pay.
Communism is an economic/political system based on the teachings of Karl Marx.
1917: The Russian Revolution led to the creation of the Soviet Union.
In a communist system, the government is considered more important than the individual.
The Government controls all businesses and most organizations.
Obedience. Discipline. Economic Security. Equality. These are the values of a communist society.
The Communist Party makes all decisions and controls all aspects of people's lives.
During WWII, the Soviet dictator of Joseph Stalin.
Hitler's Rise to Power
Many Germans were angered by the ToV.
Many Germans blamed their new government for their problems.
Hitler, a veteran of WWI, felt that the ToV was too harsh.
He became the leader of a political party called the NAZI party.
His ideas included extreme nationalism, a desire for revenge for the ToV, and to rebuild Germany's lost empire.
In 1932, at the lowest point of the Great Depression, the NAZI party won elections that led to Hitler becoming Chancellor.
A year later he overthrew the Wiemar republic and became a fascist dictator.
How did the Great Depression spread from the U.S. to Europe?
What are some potential areas of conflict between Communism, Fascism, and Democracy?
What connection can you make with the Unemployment chart of the rise of Nazism in Germany?
What other reasons persuaded many Germans to support the Nazi party?
Which group of Germans did Hitler appeal to the most?
Although they had an Emperor, he did not have much power. Instead, the power was in the hands of General Hideki Tojo, a military dictator.
Japan emerged from depression as an industrial nation.
In 1931 they invaded Manchuria (China) to gain land and resources.
They still need more raw materials which were supplied partly by the United States.
The Phony War a.k.a "The Sitzkrieg"
Shortly after Germany invaded Poland, France and Great Britain declared war on Germany.
There was no fighting in the fall and winter of 1939 and 1940.
This period of inactivity was dubbed the “Phony War” by journalists.
The Maginot Line
The Maginot line was a heavily fortified wall along the French/German border.
The Maginot Line was built by the French after World War I.
It was designed to keep the Germans out of France.
The Maginot Line was 125 miles long and protected the French border from Belgium to Switzerland.
On May 10, 1940 the Germans invaded France, through Belgium, in another blitzkrieg.
The Allied forces were pushed back to the French Port City of Dunkirk, where they had to be evacuated to England.
Hitler's army continued its march towards Paris and on June 22nd, 1940 France officially surrendered.
The armistice was signed on in the very same railway carriage in which the 1918 Armistice (not the ToV) was signed (it was removed from a museum building and placed on the precise spot in the Compiègne Forest where it was located in 1918).
Why do you think Hitler chose to do this?
Rudolf Hess, one of Hitler's top men flew to Scotland in May of 1941 to offer a treaty with England.
The treaty would allow for peace between England and Germany only if England would not stand in the way of Germany's plan to invade Russia.
Hess was captured and claimed to be on a one man mission, but a notebook that was found in a Russian archive indicates that Hitler knew of the plan.
FDR and Fala
Soon Two Alliances would form:
The Axis Powers
The Allied Powers
Who is the intended audience? How can you tell?
What is the message of the propaganda?
What elements make this propaganda?
Elements of Propaganda
1. Simplicity of message urging a specific action or goal
2. Powerful Imagery
3. Appeal to emotions
4. Bias towards one point of view
World War II
Lend Lease Act (March 1941)
The United States Congress decides to supply Great Britain and later the Soviet Union with war materials and money to fight the Nazis.
The rationale behind this was that if Britain was better able to defend itself, than that would be better for the security of the U.S.
What is the potential problem with this move by the United States?
Operation Barbarossa (Spring 1941)
In April, the Germans conquer Yugoslavia and Greece
In June, Hitler decided to violate the Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact and attacked the Soviet Union.
The Soviets retreated, but burned everything that could be of use to an invading army, a tactic that had used against Napoleon over a hundred years earlier.
By November, the Nazis had made it to Moscow. But the brutal Russian winter was upon them. Being ill-equipped for such conditions, many soldiers froze to death and their equipment would not function properly...just like Napoleon's forces.
"A date which will live in infamy"
After their conquest of Manchuria, Japan continued to conquer China and also attack French and British colonies through Southeast Asia (Hong Kong & Vietnam)
The U.S. was displeased with their expansion and in September 1940 the U.S. stopped trading iron and steel with Japan in an attempt to get them to stop their conquests.
In July 1941, the U.S. ended all trade with Japan, which was important because we were their primary source of oil. We were also the only major power in the Pacific region standing in their way.
General Hideki Tojo argued that if Japan were to attack the U.S. sooner rather than later, they would catch us by surprise and defeat us quickly.
Tojo believed that if they destroyed our Navy than they could continue their systematic domination of Asia.
They chose to attack Pearl Harbor on the island on Oahu because that is where the U.S. housed their Pacific fleet, despite the fact that Japanese diplomats were in Washington D.C. negotiating a peaceful end to the trade embargo.
On Sunday December 7th, 1941, at 7:55 a.m., the Japanese launched an attack on the American Naval Base at Pearl Harbor.
In 2 successive waves, more than 350 Japanese bombers, torpedo planes, and fighters attacked.
Altogether they sunk 18 U.S. ships.
Fortunately, U.S. aircraft carriers were out to sea on missions elsewhere.
As a result, our fleet was crippled, but not destroyed.
In total, 2,117 sailors and marines, 218 army soldiers, and 68 civilians were killed. More than 1200 were wounded.
About 200 U.S. aircraft were destroyed on the ground, while the Japanese lost only 29.
On Monday, December 8th 1941, President Roosevelt went before Congress to ask them to declare war on Japan.
On December 11th 1941, Italy and Germany declared war on the U.S. because of their alliance with Japan.
Hitler had urged Japan to avoid war with the U.S. fearing that we would join the war in Europe.
The Allied strategy of systematically conquering one island after another in the Pacific, moving closer towards mainland Japan.
Bataan Death March
The Japanese invaded the Philippine islands in December 1941.
Since the Spanish American War in 1898, the U.S. had control over Philippines. Today, however, we just have friendly ties and most Filipinos still speak English.
On April 9, 1942, the American and Filipino forces surrendered.
A few days later, the Japanese forced their 70,000 prisoners to walk 60 miles to prison camps.
Those that fell behind were often shot or stabbed by Japanese soldiers.
While in the prison camps, the prisoners experienced horrible conditions and were mistreated, underfed, and not given medical attention.
At least 10,000 prisoners died during the Bataan Death March, as it came to be known.
The Doolittle Raid
Although the Doolittle Raid did very little damage and resulted in the loss of many aircraft, why was it an important part of WWII?
What's the Deal With Mr. Hansen's Tie Today
The modern form of the Purple Heart was created in 1932 and honors those who were wounded in combat.
The Bronze Star was created in 1944 and is awarded to any service member who has shown heroism since December 7th, 1941.
The Army, Air Force and Navy each have a Medal of Honor for those soldiers who show valor that goes above and beyond their call of duty. Soldiers in the Marines or members of the Coast Guard are awardthe Navy Medal of Honor.
In 1940 FDR signed a law that required all men between the ages of 18 and 45 to sign up for military service. In the event of war you would join the military based on your selective service number. Once selected you were required to report for duty. After Pearl Harbor, all men between 18 and 45 were liable to be sent to war while all men between 18 and 65 were required to register. For more info, Click here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_Training_and_Service_Act_of_1940
The Invasion of Sicily and Italy
After Africa fell to the Allies, Roosevelt and Churchill decided their next move was to invade Italy.
On July 10, 1943, the Allies invaded Sicily and conquered it in 39 days.
July 25, 1943, the Italian king dismissed Mussolini from his position after his party had abandoned him and a series of military disasters.
On September 12, the Germans rescued Mussolini and made him the "leader" of a Nazi territory in northern Italy.
The Nazis had to pull troops from the Russian front to fight the Allies in Italy.
Eventually the Allies fought their way to Rome and captured it on June 4, 1944.
On November 28, 1943, the "Big Three" (FDR, Churchill, & Stalin) met in Tehran, Iran to discuss a coordinated strategy for defeating Germany.
Iran was chosen as a meeting place because it was under joint occupation of the UK and the USSR. They had previously conquered it to secure their oil fields and keep them out of Axis hands. Iran was neutral at the time, but had a leader that was suspected having ties to the Axis powers.
The Big Three agreed to open up the war on two fronts by coordinating a Soviet attack on Germany with an Allied invasion on Occupied France.
They also agreed to divide up Axis lands into regions controlled by the Allied powers following the war's conclusion.
They also agreed to give Iran back its independence.
Rules: 1 Nazi paired to 1 Allied
Nazis will always have at least 2 dice to roll. If they have any of their fortifications or infantry in the area being attacked, they may use 2 additional die. Planes and Panzers are worth 1 additional die.
Allied have one die for each unit (a total of 5). You may use as many units as you wish to attack each area.
D-Day Invasion (Operation Overlord)
June 6, 1944
First, 3 airborne divisions parachuted behind enemy lines to cut communication lines and seize control of roads, bridges and airfields.
Then, six hours later, combined force of American, British, and Canadian troops under command of Dwight D. Eisenhower landed on coast of Normandy, France.
Initial invasion force of 175,000 troops had been ferried across overnight in more than 2,700 ships, along with thousands of vehicles and tons of supplies.
Attack was spread over 5 beaches. Americans at Omaha Beach encountered the heaviest resistance and suffered the most casualties.
Even so, the invasion was successful, and the Allies fought there way inland. By September, France was cleared of German troops.
Battle of the Bulge
After the Liberation of France, the Allies headed toward Germany through Belgium.
Hitler, in a last ditch effort to repel the Allied forces, had built up an army of 250,000 men along the Ardennes Forest in Belgium. His goal was to break through the Allied line and divide the Allied forces in two.
On December 16, 1944, the Germans attacked and drove a 60 mile 'bulge' into the line, but the Americans held them back and close up the line.
The Germans were driven into retreat and the battle was over by January of 1945.
This battle was significant because Hitler no longer had a strong enough army to prevent the Allies from invading Germany.
Secret Stash of Classic 80s Benefit Songs!
Philippine Liberation (Oct '44 - July '45)
Beginning with the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October of 1944, the Americans began to reconquer the islands of the Philippines.
The Americans faced fierce resistance from the Japanese forces who occupied the islands
By July 5th of 1945, General Douglas MacArthur, who had previously been the commander in the Philippines, announced the Philippines had be liberated.
The Japanese lost more than 336,000 of its best troops in the campaign, and Japan supply lines had been cut.
The American lost 14,000 troops
After suffering one defeat after another, the Japanese army was severely depleted and was running short of supplies, yet they refused surrender, and the last few battles of the war would be extremely costly.
Battle of Iwo Jima
Okinawa, which is part of the Japanese Archipelago, was targeted next, primarily because of its airfields which could be used to bomb mainland Japan. It could also serve as a military base for a ground invasion, if necessary.
On April 1, 1945, the Americans began moving the first of their 172,000 troops ashore. Within 3 weeks, they would had conquered 4/5 of the island.
However, Japanese resistance remained fierce until June 17, 1945.
The U.S. suffered casualties, including 12,000 deaths and 38,000 wounded.
In comparison, the Japanese suffered casualties of 110,000 dead and 7,000 captured.
In addition, the Japanese forces had told the civilian population that the U.S. forces would torture anyone who was captured and encouraged them to commit suicide instead of submitting to U.S. occupation.
As a result, an estimated 40,000 to 150,000 Japanese citizens committed suicide on Okinawa.
The Japanese launched over 1500 individual kamikaze attacks sinking 34 ships and damaging another 358.
In part because of the fighting that took place on Iwo Jima and Okinawa, it was estimated that a ground invasion of mainland Japan would result in over a million American casualties. Therefore, another option was needed.
Iwo Jima is a small volcanic island about 700 miles away from mainland Japan. The island contained a Japanese military base, and more importantly, an airfield.
As part of the island hopping campaign, the Americans sought to conquer this island to use as an air base for a landing field for heavy bombers to bomb Japan.
After 74 consecutive days of Allied bombardment, 30,000 U.S. marines went ashore on February 19th, 1945.
The 23,000 Japanese soldier defending the island were entrenched in underground bunkers on Mt. Suribachi.
Rush In to Germany
After the victory of the Battle of the Bulge, the Allied forces crossed into Germany following the retreating Nazi Army.
Meanwhile, back on the Eastern Front, by the end of January, the Soviets had driven the Nazis out of Poland and were on their way to Germany. It was at this time that the Soviets discovered Aushwitz, the notorious death camp.
In February, the Big Three met again at the Yalta Conference in the Soviet Union. It was decided here that Stalin was not going to spread communism to any land that he occupied after the war. Also, if the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, they would receive land in the Pacific.
Rather than going to capture Berlin, Eisenhower opted to follow the retreating Nazi army south to Leipzig, where he believed Hitler would make his last stand. He decided to leave Berlin to the Soviets.
By the end of April, the Soviets had invaded Berlin and German soldiers and civilians, fearful of revenge expected by the Soviets, quickly tried to surrender to the Alllies.
While the Soviets were moving toward Berlin, the Allies liberated one concentration camp after another.
It was at this point that the world began to realize the extent of Hitler's "Final Solution".
While the world knew that Jews and other 'undesirables' had their rights revoked in Germany, and were being systematically rounded into prison camps since 1939, few realized that Hitler and some of his generals, like Himmler, intended to exterminate the entire race.
By 1943, some concentration camps had been converted into 'extermination camps' and Hitler's "Final Solution" had been put into action.
On April 30th, 1945, Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin.
At this point leadership is transferred to Goebbels. However, the following day he also commits suicide.
Now the leadership of the Third Reich is transferred to lesser known Nazi party members who quickly negotiate peace with the Allies.
May 7, 1945 an agreement is signed ending the war in Europe. The following day, May 8th, would forever be known as V.E. Day.
April 12th, 1945
President Roosevelt dies just after beginning his 4th term in office. He suffered a cerebral hemorrhage. Vice President Harry S. Truman takes over as Commander in Chief.
Potsdam Conference July 17- Aug 2 1945
Clement Attlee, the new British Prime Minister, President Harry Truman, and Stalin meet to confirm what to do with Germany now that they have surrendered.
They decide to divide Germany into 4 sections (as per previous conferences).
They also proposed to demilitarize Germany and make it a democracy. The conference also called for trials for Nazis and Nazi supporters guilty of war crimes.
It was also at this conference that Truman told Stalin that we had tested an atomic bomb.
Disagreements arose over reparations and the fact that the Soviets set up fake democratic governments in the lands they retook from Germany.
By the end of July 1945, almost half of Tokyo had been destroyed, as well as other Japanese cities, due to U.S. bombing raids.
President Truman decided in favor of using the Atomic bomb to end the war since Japan had refused to surrender.
On August 6th, 1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb nicknamed "Little Boy" on the city of Hiroshima.
An estimated 90,000 to 190,000 people died. These numbers include those that died later due to injuries incurred from the bombing.
While the bomb weighed 9,700 lbs, it delivered a force of 16 kilotons of TNT.
Even after this bombing and a renewed request to surrender, the Japanese still refused to give up.
August 8th, 1945 the Soviet Union declared war on Japan.
August 9th, 1945 the U.S. dropped a second atomic bomb, nicknamed 'Fat Man', on the city of Nagasaki.
This time between 60,000 - 80,000 people were killed.
Although this bomb weighed 10,300 lbs, it delivered a blast equivalent to 20 kilotons of TNT.
On August 10th, the Japanese asked for peace on the condition that be allowed to keep an emperor.
After negotiations back and forth, the official document of surrender was signed aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on Sept 2, 1945. This became known as V-J Day.
After some of the war's bloodiest fighting, the Marines took Mt. Suribachi on Feb 23rd, 1945. They would conquer the whole island by mid March.
Before the end of the battle, the Japanese had turned to using Kamikaze attacks to try and sink U.S. naval ships. They would continue to use this tactic throughout the rest of the war.
Nearly 7,000 U.S. soldiers were killed, while nearly 19,000 Japanese soldiers died. Remarkably, only 200 were taken prisoner, while another 3,000 remained in hiding throughout the island in bunkers, the last of which surrendered in 1949.
The Japanese were taught through propaganda and their code of honor that giving up and surrendering was disgraceful, and they were ordered to fight to the death.
A poltical cartoon delivers a political or social message through the artist's opinion of a situation.
The usual include symbolism, irony or exaggeration.
Please Take Out Your Packet From Last Week
As you watch Part 1 do the following:
Write down one word that describes the music.
Write a sentence about the imagery you see.
Write a question you have.
As you watch Part 2 do the following:
Write down one emotion that they are appealing to.
Write a sentence about the message of the video.
Make a new propaganda- like title for this film.
Imagine that you saw this picture on the front page of a newspaper.
Write your own headline for it.
1. Sit with your partner.
2. Take out your research and your project packet.
3. With your partner, review your research and figure out if you are able to explain the significance (importance) of your topic/event to a random person who happens to wander into the room, who may or may not be Dr. Severns.
4. You may or may not be called on at random to explain your event. Be ready!
New Due Dates
Thursday 18th: Research Due before last 15 minutes of class so we can go over it with you.
Friday: Rough Draft due, end of class
Monday: 2 Focus Questions due, end of class.
Wednesday: Video due , end of class.