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Theories of Psychology Within Montessori Education
Transcript of Theories of Psychology Within Montessori Education
(and how it's different from traditional education) 1 Montessori is an innovative, child-centered approach to education, developed a century ago by a woman ahead of her time.
Working with institutionalized and inner-city youngsters, Dr. Maria Montessori was struck by how avidly the children absorbed knowledge from their surroundings. Given developmentally appropriate materials and the freedom to follow their interests, they joyfully taught themselves.
The goal of Montessori education is to foster a child’s natural inclination to learn. Montessori teachers guide rather than instruct, linking each student with activities that meet his interests, needs, and developmental level. The classroom is designed to allow movement and collaboration, as it also promotes concentration and a sense of order. There is not just one main difference between Montessori and traditional education, but many differences. The environment is arranged according to subject area, and children are always free to move around the room instead of staying at desks. There is no limit to how long a child can work with a piece of material. Montessori emphasizes learning through all five senses, not just through listening, watching, or reading. Children in Montessori classes learn at their own, individual pace and according to their own choice of activities from hundreds of possibilities. Learning is an exciting process of discovery, leading to concentration, motivation, self-discipline, and a love of learning. The term behaviorism refers to the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson based on the belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. Behaviorism was established with the publication of Watson's classic paper Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It (1913).
Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors. Similarities:
Behaviorism is everywhere and everyone behaves every day. Montessori schools, along with other schools, especially in the younger ages, will use behaviorist methods. They will use positive and negative reinforcement and pairing when it comes to the work that they do in the classroom.
The Montessori philosophy is a constructivist model because Montessori views children as constructing knowledge from their environment, experiences and relationships within that environment, rather than simply taking it in like an empty vessel. Looking at children as empty vessels is the behaviorist and factory model of education where the child is filled with facts and educators teach to a test. Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis and the psychodynamic approach to psychology. This school of thought emphasized the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior. Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego.
Freud's theories of psychosexual stages, the unconscious, and dream symbolism remain a popular topic among both psychologists and laypersons, despite the fact that his work is viewed with skepticism by many today.
Sigmund Freud and Maria Montessori actually started their own trainings around the same time and were very interested in each others works. They often wrote letters to each other and Freud's daughter, Anna, looked up to Maria Montessori very much and even pursued teaching because of her influence. Montessori education shares some of Freud's theories when it comes to child behavior and development and Dr. Montessori addressed his theories in one of her books. Humanistic psychology began as a reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism, which dominated psychology at the time. Psychoanalysis was focused on understanding the unconscious motivations that drive behavior while behaviorism studied the conditioning processes that produce behavior. Humanist thinkers felt that both psychoanalysis and behaviorism were too pessimistic, either focusing on the most tragic of emotions or failing to take into account the role of personal choice.
Educational humanism is a philosophy which believes that developing the human intellect is what makes humans stand apart from the rest of the animal world. Humanists, such as Maslow and Montessori, believe it is necessary to study and develop the whole person over the course of his or her lifetime. Teacher candidates in traditional training programs are often asked to look at how their classrooms and lessons are addressing Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The same can be done in the Montessori environment. Maslow and Montessori both felt that traditional education systems had the potential to be more of a hindrance than a help to development. Both recognized that children are to be respected as fellow human beings. These theories are meant to work cohesively when trying to understand and gain knowledge of what Montessori education is and how it works. One theory might seem to fit more to the Montessori philosophy than the others, but hopefully, the objective was seen that one theory cannot simply do the job all on its own. The theories used were chosen because they are believed to help paint the picture of Montessori education in the best light. the focus is always on a child's growth and potential and how their individual interests are capable of helping and relating to both.
That's my presentation and I hope you enjoyed! I know that I had fun doing this project. Thank you! https://www.amshq.org/Montessori%20Education.aspx