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Essential Schools Collaborative Project

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Heather Haufe

on 12 April 2015

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Transcript of Essential Schools Collaborative Project

Introduction
In our ever changing world we are faced with many questions on how to best educate our youth. Our schools have the tough job of preparing students to face our advancing society. Not only do we have to teach content, but skills that will prepare them for the workforce. While a school is made up of many components, we believe that there are ten essential components that all schools must have in order to prepare students for the 21st century, which are as follows:
High Quality Teachers in Every Classroom
One way to insure that our schools and students are successful is by having high quality teachers in every classroom. According to the Federal Government, " a highly qualified teacher (HQT) is one who meets all of the following criteria: Holds at least a bachelor degree from a four-year institution, is fully certificated or licensed by the state, and demonstrates competence in each core academic subject area in which the teacher teaches." Highly effective teachers, although hard to define, are described differently when you ask educational professionals. A research synthesis for NCCTQ done in 2008 showed that effective teachers essentially had five qualities. They had high expectations, had a positive attitude, used diverse and engaging resources, contribute to the development of classrooms, and collaborate. Great teachers will be what makes the difference between having a good school and a great school.

All schools must have access and utilize technology. When we say we plan to incorporate technology we must first know what technology is. David Kapalan defines it as, “ best seen as systems that combine technique and activities with implements and artifacts, within a social context of organization in which the technologies are developed, employed, and administered. Technology consists of not only tools, implements, and artifacts, but also whole networks of social relations that structure, limit, and enable social life, then we can say that a circle exists between humanity and technology, each shaping and affecting the other. Technologies are fashioned to reflect and extend human interests, activities, and social arrangements, which are, in turn, conditioned, structured, and transformed by technological systems.” Technology ranges from phones and computers, to cars and satellites. Technology is now becoming a large part of the educational process and it is key that the knowledge of how to use this vast complex idea is important. With nearly every job requiring some use of technology, it must be a part of what we teach and utilize in our classrooms.
How we plan to use technology
First and foremost technology will be a tool to support learning.
Ideally we would have one-to-one devices or at least devices in every classroom
Approach School Board to propose funding and/or apply for technology grants
Create a technology cohort of teachers to implement different products and then share/teach during PD
Utilize digital classrooms (google classroom)
Teacher training on Kahoot, Class Kick, Google, Educreations, Socrative, Edmodo, Infuse learning, Kidblog, interactive maps etc.
Adopt Common Core with 21st Century Skills and create rubrics to score children on their mastery of that skill.
Collaboration
According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, collaborate means to "work together with another person or group in order to achieve or do something." Students need to be able to work together not only with their peers, but also with future employers and/or employees. This 21st century skill is essential to the workforce. Many jobs require people to work together to accomplish goals, so it is important this skill is being used in daily education.
Our Essential School
By: Heather Bovy & Heather Haufe
Essential Schools Collaborative Project


Incorporate Technology
Problem Solving & Critical Thinking
Communication
Project Based Learning
Authentic Learning Experiences
Creativity
Rigor
Professional Development
Conclusion
References
The Research
How We Plan to Use this
"Authentic Learning Definition." The Glossary of Education Reform. N.p., 15 May 2013. Web. 14 Mar. 2015. <http://edglossary.org/authentic-learning/>.
"Authentic Learning Definition."
The Glossary of Education Reform
. N.p., 15 May 2013. Web. 14 Mar. 2015. <http://edglossary.org/authentic-learning/>.

Carlgren, T. (2013). Communication, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving: A Suggested Course for All High School Students in the 21st Century. Interchange, 44(1/2), 63-81. doi:10.1007/s10780-013-9197-8

Collaborate. 2015. In
Merriam-Webster.com.
Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/collaborate

Collins, Rachel. "Higher Education,." The Critical Thinking Community. 2013.

Cooper, D. J. (2009). Professional Development: An Effective Research-Based Model.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
.

Edcamp Foundation. (2015, March 21). Retrieved from Edcamp: http://edcamp.org/

"Employers More Interested in Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Than College Major." Association of American Colleges & Universities. N.p., 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.aacu.org/press/press-releases/employers-more-interested-critical-thinking-and-problem-solving-college-major>.

Gokhale, A. A. (1995). Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking.
Journal of Technology Education
, Volume 7, Number 1.

"Highly Qualified Teachers." Highly Qualified Teachers. State of Washington OSPI, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2015.

Jacobs, Joanne, and Richard Lee Colvin. "Rigor: It's All the Rage, but What Does It Mean?" Understand​ing and Reporting on Academic Rigor. The Hechinger Institute, 2008. Web. Mar. 2015.

Kaplan, David M, Ricoeur’s Critical Theory (2003) The frailest Thing.

Authentic learning is inquiry based, uses multiple 21st century skills, and it makes learning relevant to the real world. Steve Revington states in his article titled Defining Authentic Learning, "Brain-based research shows that using all senses maximizes the learning experience. Interacting, manipulating, exploring, collaborating, discussing openly and sharing for meaningful reasons while having ample time to nurture a greater depth of reasoning and creativity is optimal learning." Not only that, but research shows that students will be more likely to retain information when it is authentic because they are able to connect it to their everyday life.
Research
How We plan to use authentic Learning
Find purpose in everything we do: Teachers will post content and learning targets daily
Provide real life audiences for our work (from people within our building, to the community, to the world)
Give student choice/freedom to be creative in projects and performance assessments
Create at least one authentic task each month
Yearly career fair for 8th grade, 10th grade, and 12th grade students.
Examples in the classroom
: Letters to the principal, posting responses on blogs, pen pals, how to videos, finding solutions to real world problems, inquiry based learning, connecting to the community, share fairs, connect learning to occupations, post current events connected to learning on a school news page etc.
How we plan to use PBL
Each teacher will plan and execute at least 1 PBL unit per year and will turn in the unit plan to administration
Designate a minimum of 1 Professional Development day a year to address and share PBL projects
Send 2 teachers from each building to be trained in PBL and have them facilitate PD for the rest of the staff
Participate in PBL twitter chats
Create a school page on the website to post photos, projects and reflections of PBL projects happening in the district
thE RESEARCH
How We Plan to Use collaboration
THE RESEARCH
How We Plan to Use COMMUNICATION
THE RESEARCH
How We Plan to Use cREATIVITY
the research
How We Plan to Use rigor
the research
How We Plan to Use professional development
Teacher surveys to identify need
Common Core trainings
Bring in other districts/experts for technology training
Twitter Chats
Edcamp style PD
Share Fairs- where teachers set up booths like a science fair and everyone walks around and looks at what others are doing in their classrooms (ex. one teacher may share how they are using kidblog and another may share how they are using formative assessments)
Yearly book studies on 21st century skills, authentic learning, PBL or technology
Provide 1 FLEX day for PD each year were teachers get to pick how/what they would like PD on. They could go to a conference, do a book study, etc.

Use and be evaluated on Common Core state standards
Use programs of teaching that incorporate rigor and connect to the core (examples Everyday Math, Treasures, etc.)
Track data from formative and summative assessments in order to differentiate according to need.
Emphasize the use of zone of proximal development in order to challenge students appropriately

Allow student choice in how they present information they learned
PBL will allow for some creativity
Student choice
Hands on learning
Genius Hour


All classes will give students a grade on speaking/listening or communication skills.
Adopt Common Core with 21st Century Skills
Provide ample opportunities for students to practice public speaking


We plan to use the Gradual Release of Responsibility (GRR) teaching model where students are ones doing the work and there is time allowed for students to work together.
Daily collaboration required in classes.
Teachers must have time to collaborate: common planning, department collaboration time, and monthly content level collaboration.

Research
The Research
The Research
How we plan to incorporate Critical thinking and Problem Solving
Provide meaningful professional development such as Ed Camp and share fairs.
Observations more often with quality feedback.
Provide multiples means of support for all teachers.
Compensate teachers who take on leadership roles within the school such as model teacher, instructional coach, or ones on a team such as a community or technology based team.
Provide common collaboration time.
Use a quality assessment such as Missouri's NEE to evaluate teachers multiple times a year.
Allow time for teachers to observe one another.
Emphasize and evaluate teachers on the components addressed in this presentation.
Finding and keeping high quality teachers in classrooms is a struggle. Forty percent of teachers that begin to pursue a teaching degree never step foot into a classroom. Of the teachers that graduate and receive a job 15.7 % of teachers leave their post every year. "Research shows that teacher effectiveness is the single most important school-based factor in student success. Students who have highly effective teachers for three years in a row will score 50 percentile points higher on achievement tests than students who have less effective teachers three years in a row" (Sanders & Rivers, 1996). In order for students to succeed we need to find, train, and keep highly qualified teachers in every classroom. While anyone or anything could probably teach someone something, effective teachers are going to make the biggest difference. Technology is only as good as the teachers that are using it. "A great teacher can do more for a student than any amount of money or technology you can throw at it."


"Highly Qualified Teachers." Highly Qualified Teachers. State of Washington OSPI, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2015.

Varlas, Laura. "Highly Qualified Teachers." Highly Qualified Teachers. ASCD Learn Teach Lead, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2015.
Collaborate. 2015. In
Merriam-Webster.com.
Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/collaborate
Cooperative learning has been proven to be beneficial. After reviewing research on the benefits of working together as opposed to by yourself, Maryellen Weimer found the following results, "The results showed that given a sufficient period of time for the cooperative learning teams to mature, the students in the cooperative learning condition performed substantially better in both the homework and unit tests than those in the individualistic learning condition.” In another article,
Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking
, by Anuradha A. Gokhale, he discusses how collaborative learning also promotes critical thinking. He made reference to Johnson and Johnson (1986), who said, "there is persuasive evidence that cooperative teams achieve at higher levels of thought and retain information longer than students who work quietly as individuals." The evidence for collaborative among students is there. We, as educators, need to now make sure we are instilling this skill in our students.
Gokhale, A. A. (1995). Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking.
Journal of Technology Education
, Volume 7, Number 1.

Weimer, M. (2013). New Evidence on Cooperative Learning.
Faculty Focus
.


Communication is a vital skill in today's society. Every person needs to know how to communicate effectively, rather that is oral, written, or listening, in order to properly achieve goals. Communicating is how we express our wants and needs. People lacking in this area may not succeed as far as those who are proficient. It is important to ensure that this skill is both taught and practiced within our schools to make sure students are ready for their futures.
In the article,
Communication, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving: A Suggested Course for All High School Students in the 21st Century
, by Terresa Carlgren, she discusses both why students are not getting these skills and why it is important for them to be learned. She states, "These skills are simply demanded of students after they graduate from high school." She goes on to say, "As businesses, employers, and entrepreneurs respond to the demands of the economy, they need to find innovative ways to compete. Employers must choose employees who are communicative, resourceful, and self-sufficient. Employees
must be capable of complex thinking and problem solving. Economic evolution demands a workforce competent in the skills of communication, critical thinking, and problem solving." With the demands of the economy, it is essential that we start early with making sure students are developing the skills necessary to be successful with life after school.
Carlgren, T. (2013). Communication, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving: A Suggested Course for All High School Students in the 21st Century. Interchange, 44(1/2), 63-81. doi:10.1007/s10780-013-9197-8


Teachers will be encouraged to develop units using all levels of bloom's taxonomy within them
Adopt Common Core with 21st Century Skills
Create engaging lessons that require students to reason about the content
Encourage the use of multiple levels of the multiple intelligences theory within weekly lessons.
Educate teachers on using Design Process for critical thinking while planning.
Do not give students answers, but rather have them think critically about the question, and provide questions to guide them along
Provide opportunities for students to problem solve alone and within groups
Kaplan, David M, Ricoeur’s Critical Theory (2003) The frailest Thing.
Technology is not an option, but a requirement to be prepared for the future. Ninety-six percent of working Americans use new communications technologies as part of their daily life, while sixty-two percent of working Americans use the Internet as an integral part of their jobs. There are a vast amount of studies showing the positive effects of technology in the classroom. The report, IT Opportunities in the Education Market, revealed that "78 percent of K-12 teachers and administrators believe technology has positively impacted the classroom and the productivity of students." Technology has been proven to improve focus, motivate, boost self esteem, and provide valuable life skills for students; the benefits are immeasurable.
Wainwrigt, Ashley. "8 Studies Show IPads in the Classroom Improve Education." SecurEdge Networks. IMPACT, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015."

United States Department of Commerce." Fact Sheet: Digital Literacy. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2015.
What is genius hour?
Every person is unique with their own unique ideas. How boring would it be if we were expected to all perform the same and produce the same projects? Creativity allows people to express themselves. Within school that means being able to decide how to present information learned or allowing students to choose a topic to research within a given subject. Being creative is a skill employers are looking for. They want someone who is able to think outside the box and help better the future of their business. If this skill is not taught, learned, and explored in school, then when will it be?
Unfortunately, creativity is not always present in education. According to Tacy Trowbridge, author of S
tudy Reveals Education System is Stifling Creativity
, "...there is a growing concern that the education system itself is a barrier to developing the creativity that drives innovation. Parents and educators agree that today’s education system places too much emphasis on testing and not enough investment in the training, tools and time needed to teach creativity." Similarly, Szilvia Péter-Szarka mentions, "That there is a growing need and demand for creativity and alternative methods of instruction in the classroom." He also goes on to discuss why creativity is so important, "In addition to more effective problem-solving and collaboration, creativity influences the quality of life in a positive way: creative people are more optimistic and persistent in problem-solving, the manifestation of everyday creativity contributes to the subjective well-being of the person and his/her environment." So, if there is a lack of creativity in education, but it is an important skill to posses, then why are we not doing more to incorporate it into the curriculum?
Peter-Szarka, S. (2012). Creative Climate as a Means to Promote Creativity in the Classroom.
Electronic Journal Of Research In Educational Psychology
, 10(3), 1011-1034.

Trowbridge, T. (2013). Study Reveals Education System is Stifling Creativity.
Education Programs Lead.


According to the Genius Hour website, Genius Hour is defined as, "A movement that allows students to explore their own passions and encourages creativity in the classroom. It provides students a choice in what they learn during a set period of time during school." Google, a familiar web company, allows their employees this opportunity. They allow their engineers up to 20% of their work time to work on any project they want. It is said to have increased productivity within the company. So, what does Genius Hour look like in education? The Genius Hour website states, "The teacher provides a set amount of time for the students to work on their passion projects. Students are then challenged to explore something to do a project over that they want to learn about. They spend several weeks researching the topic before they start creating a product that will be shared with the class/school/world. Deadlines are limited and creativity is encouraged. Throughout the process the teacher facilitates the student projects to ensure that they are on task." This allows students time to be creative and work on things of interest to them, but in a meaningful way. Finding even 30 minutes a week, would be a great start to incorporating this into the curriculum.
Kesler, C. (2015, March 20). What is Genius Hour. Retrieved from Genius Hour: http://www.geniushour.com/what-is-genius-hour/
Video explaining Genius Hour a little more in depth.
Rigor seems to be the new buzzword in education. The government is demanding and expecting more from our students. Classrooms need to be producing rigorous curriculum in order to fully prepare students for the workforce. Students need to be exposed to the Common Core State Standards and material that is rigorous, that will prepare them for a post secondary education. Employers are demanding more from their employees as well. They want people who know how to work under tough conditions and can be "put to the test" so to speak. Rigor needs to be apparent in classrooms so students are not shocked moving into the working world.
In an article by, Joanne Jacobs and Richard Lee Colvin, they make reference to a statement made by Barack Obama in 2009. "It is time to expect more from our students. It is time to prepare every child, everywhere in America, to out-compete any worker, anywhere in the world. It is time to give all Americans a complete and competitive education from the cradle up through a career.” Jacobs and Colvin go on to say, "Today, more than 40 percent of manufacturing jobs require a post secondary degree or certificate, and that percentage is rising." Simply put, more is being expected out of people in today's society. Rigorous programs need to start with preschool and extend to after-school programs and even further into post secondary education in order to properly prepare students for the demanding workforce ahead of them.
Jacobs, Joanne, and Richard Lee Colvin. "Rigor: It's All the Rage, but What Does It Mean?" Understand​ing and Reporting on Academic Rigor. The Hechinger Institute, 2008. Web. Mar. 2015.
Revington, Steve. Defining Authentic Learning. Global Teaching. March 2015.

Pahmov, Larissa. Alexandrea, Virginia. Authendic Learning in the Digital Age. ASCD 2014 ebook. EBSCO.
In order for children to buy into and make meaning out of their learning there experiences must be authentic ones. Authentic Learning refers to learning that connects what students learn to real world problems, issues, and techniques. An article in Education Reform states, "The basic idea is that students are more likely to be interested in what they are learning, more motivated to learn new concepts and skills, and better prepared to succeed in college, careers, and adulthood if what they are learning mirrors real-life contexts, equips them with practical and useful skills, and addresses topics that are relevant and applicable to their lives outside of school." What better way to train and prepare students for the real world than connecting what they do in the classroom to the real world?
We plan to create hands on real world experiences for our students. Project Based Learning is a teaching method were students spend an extended period of time to research, explore, and respond to a complex question or problem. It involves in depth inquiry, lots of choice, a public audience, and best of all many components of 21st century skills. Buck Institute for education states, "- Students build competencies valuable for today’s world, such as problem solving, critical thinking, collaboration, communication, and creativity/innovation, which are explicitly taught and assessed."


"Why Project Based Learning (PBL)?" Why PBL? Buck Institute for Education, n.d. web. 19 March 2015.
Project Based Learning pushes students to find solutions to real life questions and problems. Many studies have shown that if it is implemented correctly, it can help students retain information and help motivate students to learn. Edutopia did a research review of PBL and found, "PBL increases long-term retention of content, helps students perform as well as or better than traditional learners in high-stakes tests, improves problem-solving and collaboration skills, and improves students' attitudes towards learning." All of these skills are considered 21st century skills and prepare students for the workforce.
Walker, Leary. "Project Based Learning Research Review." Edutopia. George Lucas Educational Foundation. 2009. Web. March, 2015.
A video on PBL
Incorporating the 21st Century skills into current curriculum can be a struggle for some teachers. What are the 21st Century skills? How am I supposed to put that into what I am currently teaching? In what ways does this benefit the students? These are questions that may be heard in any school building trying to implement the 21st Century skills. Just like students, teachers need to be taught in order to fully understand. Administrators need to make ample time for their staff to receive professional development on the 21st Century skills, if they want these skills successfully incorporated into the curriculum. Not only should professional development be given, teachers also need the time to collaborate with other teachers on ideas. When these steps are put into place, teachers can then be successful in implementing the 21st Century skills.
Dr. J. David Cooper, author of
Professional Development: An Effective Research-Based Model
, analyzes research completed over 40 years on professional development. He states, "In order for professional development to be effective, it must relate directly to what teachers are doing every day. The most effective professional development is focused specifically on the materials and programs the teachers are using for instruction." If teachers are expected to incorporate the 21st Century skills into their teaching, then they need professional development on these skills. Cooper continues on to discuss the importance of professional development. "Effective professional development is the KEY to student
success. Dollars spent on professional development will
have a greater impact on student learning than any other
dollars spent. Help every teacher be a better teacher and
we will help every student be a more successful learner." This statement can not be truer. When teachers are knowledgeable about what they are teaching, and how, then they can fully apply their knowledge, which in return better serves our students.
Cooper, D. J. (2009). Professional Development: An Effective Research-Based Model.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Edcamp PD
Edcamp style PDs are designed to meet the needs of the teachers. According to the Edcamp foundation website, " Teachers who attend Edcamp can choose to lead sessions on those things that matter, with an expectation that the people in the room will work together to build understanding by sharing their own knowledge and questions." Teachers are given choice in what they learn about while sessions are discussion based. Edcamps are taking place around the world, where you can find one close to you and attend, or your district can put together their own Edcamp. Learn more about Edcamp below.
Edcamp Foundation. (2015, March 21). Retrieved from Edcamp: http://edcamp.org/
There is an overwhelming amount of research proving that critical thinking and problem solving needs to be a large part of a child's education. Critical thinking and problem solving research dates back to the ancient Greeks. Critical thinking and problem solving are proven to help improve reading, writing, speaking and listening. It also helps learners become more skilled at reasoning, decision making, creating and maintaining relationships as well as improving personal choices. This is not only a helpful skill for a school and social life, but for future carreers as well. A national survey done by the AAC&U found that, "Nearly all employers surveyed (93 percent) say that a demonstrated capacity to think critically, communicate clearly, and solve complex problems is more important than [a candidate’s] undergraduate major.” This is all evidence pointing to the great need of critical thinking and problem solving in the classroom.


Critical thinking and problem solving seem to go hand in hand. Craig Rusbult describes problem solving as, " any situation where you have an opportunity to make a difference, to make things better; and problem solving is converting an actual current situation (the NOW-state) into a desired future situation (the GOAL-state). " Michael Scriven & Richard Paul describe critical thinking as, "the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action." Both are not only tough to define, but also a tough skill to insure children learn.
Rusbult, Craig. Thinking Skills and Problem Solving in Education and Life. ASA.org. 2001.

Scriven, Michael & Paul, Richard. "8th annual conference on Critical thinking and Educational Reform." Summer 1987.
Collins, Rachel. "Higher Education,." The Critical Thinking Community. 2013.

"Employers More Interested in Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Than College Major." Association of American Colleges and Universities. 10. April 2013. Web. 22 March.<www.accu.org>
Sanders, William. Rivers, June. Cumulative and Residual Effect of Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement. November 1996. University of Tennessee.
High Quality Teachers in Every Classroom
Incorporate Technology
Students and teachers must Collaborate
Authentic Learning Experiences
Utilize Project Based Learning
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Communication Skills
Creativity
Rigor
Quality and Meaningful Professional Development
Video on Gradual Release of Responsibility
Change is inevitable, and our schools must be prepared to change with the times to best educate our students. Employers, research, and educational professionals all point to 21st century skills as being a must have in today's education. The educational system must now take on the role of teaching more than just content to ensure children are prepared for the future. Our ten components are essential in making both schools and students successful for the 21st century and in building tomorrows leaders.

Kesler, C. (2015, March 20). What is Genius Hour. Retrieved from Genius Hour: http://www.geniushour.com/what-is-genius-hour/

Pahmov, Larissa. Alexandrea, Virginia. Authendic Learning in the Digital Age. ASCD 2014 ebook. EBSCO.

Peter-Szarka, S. (2012). Creative Climate as a Means to Promote Creativity in the Classroom. Electronic Journal Of Research In Educational Psychology, 10(3), 1011-1034.

Revington, Steve. Defining Authentic Learning. Global Teaching. March 2015.

Rusbult, Craig. Thinking Skills and Problem Solving in Education and Life. ASA.org. 2001.

Sanders, William. Rivers, June. Cumulative and Residual Effect of Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement. November 1996. University of Tennessee.

Scriven, Michael & Paul, Richard. "8th annual conference on Critical thinking and Educational Reform." Summer 1987.

Trowbridge, T. (2013). Study Reveals Education System is Stifling Creativity. Education Programs Lead.

"United States Department of Commerce." Fact Sheet: Digital Literacy. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2015.

Varlas, Laura. "Highly Qualified Teachers." Highly Qualified Teachers. ASCD Learn Teach Lead, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2015.

Wainwrigt, Ashley. "8 Studies Show IPads in the Classroom Improve Education." SecurEdge Networks. IMPACT, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.

Walker, Leary. "Project-Based Learning Research Review." Edutopia. George Lucas Educational Foundation, 2009. Web. 19 Mar. 2015. <http://www.edutopia.org/pbl-research-learning-outcomes>.

Weimer, M. (2013). New Evidence on Cooperative Learning. Faculty Focus.

"Why Project Based Learning (PBL)?" Why PBL? Buck Institute for Educatoin, n.d. Web. 19 Mar. 2015. <http://bie.org/about/why_pbl>.
References
Full transcript