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Free Will. ToK Presentation

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Nirbhay Sharma

on 21 February 2013

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Transcript of Free Will. ToK Presentation

Free Will
Reality or Illusion? Kristelle Manassian and Nirbhay Sharma Against For Free will in Biology John-Dylan Haynes' Study
of the consciousness Genetics of Mental Illnesses
and Addiction Psychotherapy is a treatment for depression and other such problems which mainly focuses on talking to the patient and trying to slowly change the cognitive patterns formed by the patient, especially interpersonal avoidance patterns.
Psychotherapy does not work if the interpersonal avoidance patterns remain, and this is under the choice of the patient themselves. Cognition is the acquisition and understanding of knowledge that shapes our thoughts.
Our thoughts are influenced by our schemata which are the organizations of information and knowledge that we acquire from our experience.
From our schemata thought patterns are formed
If our schemata are skewed, negative thinking patterns might be formed.
Neuroplasticity gives us the opportunity to change our thinking patterns. Though in Haynes' study there is evidence of a decision before we are aware we made a decision, there is still a chance for us to veto or reject that decision, making us the ones who decide
Our brain chemistry and evolution can influence decision making in our brain but the ultimate decision lies upon us.
Neuroplasticity gives us the ability to change our ever growing brain. The brains of several test subjects were put under fMRI scans and instructed to press a button using their left index finger or their right index finger "whenever they felt the urge to do so".
Using the fMRI scans, the scientists could predict with 60 % accuracy which hand the test subject was going to use The human brain is wired in a certain way for men and women so that it ensures the survival of our species.
Due to this, men and women still pertain many "primal" thinking patterns that have been in place from as far back as the 'hunter's and gatherer's' age. Depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses are due to gene mutations and imbalances in the brain chemistry.
There is also a gene found in some people that is related to addiction
Both addiction and mental illness can be hereditary Knowledge Issue To what extent is free will a conscious decision based on our perception or an illusion dictated by biological processes outside of our control? Free will is the ability to decide and act based
on our own thoughts regardless of biological
processes outside our control

For the purpose of this presentation, we will not
argue against free will using philosophical ideas
like determinism but instead use the biological
evidence to counter and support it. Conclusion Bibliography We have the ability to decide and act based on our thoughts because:-
We can change many biological factors that affect our life if we choose to do so.
Yes, we have free will over a large extent of our life. Influence of the patients choice in therapy Human wiring The Fetus The amount of certain hormones/chemicals a fetus is exposed to in the womb determines many character traits of a person. Human Cognition and Neuroplasticity And our real life situation Empathy and self reliance.
Communicators and team workers. Testosterone = aggression = angry drivers
Middle to ring ratio
Homosexuality = switched hormones Smith, Kerri. "Neuroscience vs Philosophy: Taking Aim at Free Will." Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, 31 Aug. 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
McCullough Jr., James P. Treatment for Chronic Depression: Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP). Guilford Press, 2000.
Smith, Michael W., Hansa Bhargave, Kristy Hammam, Brunilda Nazario, and John Hopkins. "Psychotherapy for Depression: Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy." WebMD. WebMD, 03 Jan. 0000. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Devlin, Hannah, Irene Tracy, Heidi Johansen-Berg, and Stuart Clare. "What Is Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)?" Psych Central. Psych Central, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Johnson, Jayne. "Addiction In The Brain." WRC RSS. Wellness Resource Center, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Bocco, Diana. "Are Men and Women Wired Differently?" Curiosity. Curiosity, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Jain, Rakesh. "Biological Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." Psych Congress Network. N.p., 7 Sept. 2012. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Yale University. "'Addiction Gene' Identified By Yale Researchers In Women Of European Origin." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 4 Sep. 2009. Web.
21 Feb. 2013.
"5-HTT: "The Depression Gene"" Genomics. Davidsons College, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. Smokers
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