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Nutrition for Speed and Power Athletes

Specific bioenergetic and nutritional considerations for athletes competing in speed- and power-dominant sports

Melissa Thompson

on 13 October 2012

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Transcript of Nutrition for Speed and Power Athletes

Nutrition for the Speed and Power Athlete Who is a Speed and Power Athlete? Friendly Reminder. Rely predominantly on anaerobic metabolism for E production Activity demands vary widely ... ... therefore body types vary as well! Dietary Needs Pre-, Post- and During Exercise Pre-Exercise Recommendations Recommendations During Exercise Post-Exercise Recommendations "Your best pre-workout meal is your last post-workout meal"
- Matt Nichol, Strength and Conditioning Coach maybe not the best idea ... Melissa Thompson, MS 2 pcs chicken
2 cups pasta
3/4 cup marinara sauce
1 baked potato
1 cup broccoli
2 Gatorades 1300kcal
164g CHO
91g PRO
30g FAT 3 hrs pre-grame
Recommendations ...

60-180g CHO
20-40g PRO
10-20g Fat Real Athlete Example: Peyton Manning Maximizing Protein Synthesis During Exercise? For Intermittent Sports

Use every opportunity (between innings, shifts, periods, etc) to consume fluids
Consume 4-8 oz CHO-containing beverage (6-7% solution) every 10-20 mins Increased body temperature/ Sweat rate Equipment/ Environment Increased Metabolic Cost Dehydration/ Depletion of CHO stores Multiple Bouts High Intensity Work (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Factors Affecting CHO Contribution to Total Fuel Requirement INCREASE DECREASE High intensity activity
Long-duration activity
Hot/cold temperature extremes
High altitudes
Age (higher in younger athletes) Aerobic training
Good conditioning
Temperature adaptation
Goals = maintain blood sugar, optimize hydration, ensure stomach empty, maximize muscle protein synthesis/minimize muscle protein breakdown How Does Pre-Exercise Nutrition Work? Weight Management Optimal health and performance calls for gaining lean muscle mass, and decreasing BF%.
Exception: Sumo Wrestlers, long distance swimming.

-Strength and power athletes usually have goals to increase mass or MTN mass.

-Very hard to find studies involving elite athletes and weight fluctuation.

-Common among literature that decreasing CHO intake will yield a greater decrease in BW. For Power/Speed Burst Sports Competitive bursts short, usually low repetitions required

Do I still need to fuel during exercise then?
Consider: training workouts, warm-ups, multiple competitive events, etc
Goals same as intermittent - fuel/hydrate according to intensity Originally, strength/power athletes were just told to eat more when it came to weight gains.

Original thought that nutrition would play only a little role in performance.

Energy balance is the most basic thought when it comes to weight gain and weight loss.

RMR x PAL (resting metabolic rate multiplied by physical activity level)

This should provide sufficient calories for the athlete. Weight Management Among literature, higher BF% limits athletic performance The Australian Institute of Sport Recommended CHO Sources for Sprinters during Competition:
- sports drink
- carbohydrate gel
- cordial
- sports bars
- jelly lollies English BMR Formula:

Women: BMR = 655 + ( 4.35 x weight in pounds ) + ( 4.7 x height in inches ) - ( 4.7 x age in years )

Men: BMR = 66 + ( 6.23 x weight in pounds ) + ( 12.7 x height in inches ) - ( 6.8 x age in year ) 1.53 - Sedentary/Light Activity

1.76- Active or Moderately Active

2.25- Vigorous Active Weight Gain: Whats the best method? "Avoid hunger, but don't risk the discomfort of a full stomach" - AIS Energy intake <, >, or = Energy Expended Increase caloric intake (300-500kcal/day) from CHO, PRO, and UnSFA

Decrease aerobic training volume – catabolic

Seems to be a safe range of 0.5-0.7kg of muscle weight gain per week (~23% intake in total calories)

Only about 30-40% or weight gain is fat free mass (FFM), the rest of the increase in weight was from water.

Athletes who CHO Load will have associated weight gain

Augmentation of glycogen stores (~15g/kg to 40g/kg in 20kg of muscle) = 1lb of glycogen and 3lb of water. Weight gain: Increase in FFM or BW? Why Gain Mass? Depends on the athlete!

Wrestling, football, throwing events, hockey, rugby (many contact sports).

Athletes need to make a certain weight, more mass = more intertia

Basically you could make an argument for any sport aside from distance events.

Important to keep the LBM/FM ratio in favor of good performance Weight Loss: What is the Best Method? Weight loss: decrease in BF% or BW? Some athletes need to make a certain weight to be eligible to compete (boxers, weight lifters, wrestlers)

Caloric intake should be decreased (~300-500kcal/day)

Supplement aerobic training (catabolic) with strength training (extra energy expenditure)

PRO intake may need to be increased (N balance) to maintain positive nitrogen balance.

Smaller, frequent meals will reduce episodes of hypoglycemia, allow for more complete absorption.

Weekly fat loss is safe around 1-2 lbs.

Don't forget to hydrate! Recall: Goal of the Speed/Power athlete is to maximize lean mass Recommended Nutrient Intakes Post-Exercise CHO = 0.8-1g/kg
Pro = 0.4-0.5g/kg 1g/kg CHO supplement immediately after and 1 hr after resistance exercise decreased protein breakdown and urea nitrogen excretion, and slightly increased myofibrillar protein synthetic rate Roy, Tarnopolsky, Macdougall, Fowles & Yarashesky, 1997 "We are what we repeatedly do" - Aristotle Hypertrophy = accumulation of successive periods of positive protein balance (RE + AA) Does Timing Matter? Protein synthesis rates elevated 24hr+ in trained athletes
(acute synthesis ~2hrs)

Glycogen synthetase at peak immediately post-exercise

Early and frequent consumption best (within 2hrs of exercise) Periodization What is it? Resistance Training Periodization is the division of training cycles throughout the course of the year, where volume, frequency, intensity, time, and type of training are manipulated to meet the demands of the sport. Nutritional Periodization? System of fluctuating the intake of macronutrients to optimize muscle strength hypertrophy. Nutrient periodization is a sensible practice for serious exercisers because it can modulate macronutrient intakes while reducing the chance of nutrient deficiencies over an extended period of time. How do they relate? a unique program has been suggested for establishing a nutrition framework to support exercise periodization (Coyle).. This dietary approach, referred to as nutrient periodization or carbohydrate periodization focuses on adjusting macronutrients to best support exercise periodization techniques. Annual Schedule Offseason (7-8 months) Pre-Season (1 month)
Competition Season (3-5 months)
Important to know caloric expenditure at each season The Offseason Phases of Offseason Recovery Period for a couple weeks to a month immediately after season
Long phase devoted to hypertrophy and strength buidling
Prior to preseason, cutting excess weight and getting into optimal shape for season Goals? Caloric Requirements
Caloric Requirements = 1.3-1.5 x BMR

BMR = lean body weight (kg) x 24
1.3 for low activity or weight loss,
1.4 for moderately active and maintenance, and/or
1.5 for highly active along with weight gain. (minimum) CHO 55-60% and 6-10 g/kg
PRO 15-20% and 1.4-1.7g/kg
FAT 20-25% Offseason Science for Protein Synthesis 101 mTOR AMPK mTor protein activated by:
mechanical stress
growth and hormonal factors
amino acids AMPK activated by breakdown of ATP Need to examine effects of nutrient ingestion:
post-exercise Exercise = breakdown ATP

effects mTOR (decreases protein synthesis)

preworkout AA intake can this effect effects of AA ingestion subtle
increased insulin response
CHO ingestion =
inhibit protein degradation
decrease AMPK effects
Goals = maintain blood sugar, optimize hydration and fuel delivery, minimize muscle protein breakdown and DECREASE THE DECREASE in muscle protein synthesis Goals = rehydration, replenish muscle glycogen stores, amplify muscle protein synthesis/minimize muscle protein degradation What to Eat, What to Eat? EAAs important (leucine) Upper limit? Studies suggest ~20g protein (8-10g EAA), but methodological limitations leucine capable of turning on training-induced protein synthesis So ... do we really need carbs? Recall mTOR - synergistic effects CHO/Pro supplement given immediately post-exercise (vs 2h delay), superior strength gains and 25% increase in mean muscle area (Esmark et al)
Protein synthesis stimulated ~400% above resting when CHO + PRO supplement given 1 or 3hrs post-exercise (Rasmussen et al) Caffeine and Ephedrine Steer clear of "crash dieting" Have a plan to maintain Supplementation Supplement:
“1. Something added to complete a thing, make up for a deficiency, or extend or strengthen the whole.
2. A section added to a book or document to give further information or to correct errors.”

Protein supplementation to augment hypertrophy post exercise is common.

Differing protein sources have different anabolic effects with exercise in improvements in body composition. (ex: casein > whey) Popular Supplements Anything legal a competitive athlete can get their hands on to improve performance will be taken.

Creatine supplementation.

Amino Acid supplements: Arginine, Glutamine, Ornithine (alpha ketoglutarate).

Herbs and plant based supplements: Gamma Orynzanol, Tribulus terrestris, Yohimbine, HMB.

Thermogenic Agents: Caffeine, Ephedrine. Creatine Supplementation Does Creatine improve performance? Yes and No.

Studies show improvements in short burst, power-based activity (anaerobic power, endurance).

Benefits are less evident with events that do not place extreme, short term demands on muscle energy metabolism.

Side effects, with anything, need to be considered. Creatine phosphate (CP or PCr) aids in the production and maintenance of ATP (does not increase the [ATP] )

Synthesized in the body from arginine, methionine, and glycine.

Would need about 5kg of raw meat to equal a 5g dose from a supplement.

Rx 1: ATP ADP + Pi + E

Rx 2: PCr + ADP + H+ Cr + ATP How Does It Work? Creatine Supplementation Studies repeatedly show a loading phase followed by a maintenance phase.

Loading phase on average is 5-10days @ about 20g per day.

Maintenance phase is usually 35-50days @ about 5g per day.

Consistent increases in LBM with strength training protocols.

Studies show there is not an increase in phosphocreatine repletion while on doses of creatine supplements How to use Creatine Adrian Peterson 6'1 220 lbs 5% BF Example Diet 209 lbs of LBM or 95 kg BMR- 24 x 95= 2,280 2,280 x 1.5 = 3,420 = calories CHO- 95 x 9g/kg = 855g/day
PRO- 95 x 1.7g/kg = 161g/day
FAT- can run higher to gain mass
- 20% of 3,420 calories
- 684 calories/9 = 76g/day Gaining Muscle Mass Intake more calories than expended
Too simplistic? Exact number of kcal to gain muscle isn’t known: metabolism, exercise and nutrient status make specific requirements difficult.
Experts recommend between1,000-3,500 excess kcall over a week to gain 1 lb.
Other research says, muscle hypertrophy may require higher levels of kcal intake
Suggesting 44-50 kcal per kg of body weight
Bottom line? About 47 kcal/kg/day for building muscle
4,465 kcal for Adrian Peterson Protein Resistance training increases protein synthesis and degredation for at least 24 hrs after workouts. Additional protein is needed to: 1) repair damage 2)promote adaptations 3)assist with replenishing energy stores
1.6-1.7 g/kg/day for strength athletes to allow for accumulation and maintanence of lean tissue Carbohydrates 7-12 g/kg/day recommended Most people trying to add mass do not do prolonged exercise therefore 12g is too high. An intake of 9g/kg/day of CHO for 24 hours following an intense workout. 6 g/kg/day prior to a workout moderate-light intensity exercise. Fats With the nutrient periodization approach, allow fat intake to fill in the kcal after protein and carbohydrate levels have been established. CHO levels after intense workouts will be high so fat intake will be low. Don’t want fat to be too high or too low (15-25%) Offseason Summary CHO should cycle b/w 6-9 g/kg/day based around exercises, proteins should be maintained in upper end of recommendations, and fats should be periodized in relation to CHO and PRO Pre-Competition Season Lower to 1.3 times BMR in order to get rid of excess body fat
CHO = 8g/kg
PRO = 1.5-1/7 x kg
FAT = about same In-Season It is detrimental to be on low calorie diet during season
Eat highest level of CHO (60%) and adequate calories
Meals before and after practice
Meals before and after competitive events
CHO ARE KEY Recovery Period Little to no structure in diet and training
Reflect on season and recover from stresses of training and nutrition Concerns? Too much of one macronutrient (almost always protein) Anabolic steroids are always a concern when it come to strength-power athletes Physiological needs of Speed & Power Athletes General needs
Protein: Building blocks
CHO: Fuel for muscles and brain
Fat: Fuel for muscles, brain, reduce inflammation
Fluid: limits fatigue, allows delivery of nutrients
Micronutrients: assist macro metabolism Anaerobic Metabolism:
Performance of muscle at the absence of adequate amount of oxygen
Glycolytic system
-Depends on the production of
lactic acid
-Known as lactic system
Phosphagen system
-No requirement of lactate formation
-Known as alactic system
How much?
Goal: 25 grams per sitting

What types?
Lean meats

Your wt (lbs)/2.2= your wt (kg)
Needs: 1g PRO/kg body wt Protein
More steps used compared to PCr hydrolysis
Providing ATP in slower rate than PCr hydrolysis, but quicker than oxidative phosphorylation
Unlike PCr hydrolysis, does NOT reach maximal rare until after 5 seconds of exercise Anaerobic Glycolysis
Water. Drink it.
Warding off fatigue & heat-related illness
Provides essential needs for recovery
Increases performance in some cases
Body weight changes
Urine frequency
Urine color -Dark: dehydration -Pale: Euhydration
Goal: Drinking water to match the loss
Before: normal
-4 hours ahead
-5-7 milliliters per kilogram of body weight
Before: Dark, concentrated, or no urine
-2 hours ahead
-3-5 milliliters per kilogram of body weight Fluid (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Fluid Intake Needs for Speed & Power Athletes Benefits:
Warding off fatigue & heat-related illness
Provides essential needs for recovery
Increases performance in some cases
Body weight changes
Urine frequency
Urine color -Dark: dehydration -Pale: Euhydration
Goal: Drinking water to match the loss
Before: normal
-4 hours ahead
-5-7 milliliters per kilogram of body weight
Before: Dark, concentrated, or no urine
-2 hours ahead
-3-5 milliliters per kilogram of body weight Activity such as sprinting may be benefited by hypohydration
Hypohydration may help in achieving lower body mass which is desired for having less mass that runners have to carry
Leading to reduction in physiological demands and improving performance
Overriding any adverse effects of hypohydration with higher performance results
Judelson et al.
Some loss of performance Strength, power and in high-intensity exercise less than 2 minutes Series of 6 sets of back squat exercises Judelson et al.
Performance reduced Mixture of intermittent high intensity, endurance, and skill – team sports McGregor et al.
Soccer skill test used for study
Dribbling a ball between a line of 7 cones each 9.8ft apart Euhydration group
1.4 % loss of body mass
Performance maintained Hypohydration group
2.4% loss of body mass
5% performance deterioration Summary Fluid Intake Needs for Speed & Power Athletes Physiological demands for power and speed athletes High power output over a short time period
Quick resynthesis of ATP
Anaerobic Glycolytic system
Depends on the production of lactic acid
Known as lactic system
Anaerobic Phosphagen system
No requirement of lactate formation
Known as alactic system
Type 2 muscle favored Summary Male Female Sprinters Throwers, Jumpers, and combined event athletes Thrower: 3490kcal 20-22 kcal per pound of bodyweight
160lbs male = 3200kcal Olympic hockey players 18-20 kcal per pound of bodyweight
130lbs female = 2400kcal Hepathletes: 2356 kcal
Jumpers: 1981 kcal
Throwers: 2217 kcal – 2616kcal With training 198lb male needs: 5000kcal/day
Resting energy expenditure: 2100kcal/day With training 150lb female needs: 3500kcal/day
Resting energy expenditure: 1500kcal/day Caloric Needs for Speed & Power Athletes Summary Benefits:
Warding off fatigue & heat-related illness Assessments:
Body weight changes
Urine frequency
Urine color Recommendations:
Goal: Matching the loss
Before: normal
4 hours ahead
5-7 milliliters per kilogram of body weight Summary Hypohydration & Performance Theoretical:
Hypohydration may help in achieving lower body mass which is desired for having less mass that runners have to carry
Overriding any adverse effects of hypohydration with higher performance results 5 Different studies' conclusion:
Sprint Performance
Repeated Sprints
Strength, power and in high-intensity exercise less than 2 minutes
Series of 6 sets of back squat exercises
Mixture of intermittent high intensity, endurance, and skill – team sports All studies showed that euhyration maintained the performance level and hypohydration had either lowered the performance or had no effect. References Houtkooper, L., Abbot, J., & Nimmo, M. (2007). Nutrition for throwers, jumpers, and combined events athletes. Journal Of Sports Sciences, 2539-47. doi:10.1080/02640410701607262

Maughan, R. J., & Shirreffs, S. M. (2010). Development of hydration strategies to optimize performance for athletes in high-intensity sports and in sports with repeated intense efforts. Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports, 2059-69.


Eisenman, P., & Johnson, D. (1982). Coaches guide to nutrition and weight control. (1 ed., Vol. 1). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.

Ratzin Jackson, C. G. (2000). Nutrition and the strength athlete. (1 ed., Vol. 1). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC.

Antonio, J., Kalman, D., & et al., (2008). Essentials of sports nutrition and supplements. (1 ed., Vol. 1). Humana Press: Totowa, NJ.
Gaines, R. (2006). Periodized Nutrition for Strength and Power Athletic Performance. NSCA’s Performance Training Journal, 5(6), 18-20.

East, M.. Williams, A.. Anderson, G.. & Velasco, J. (2006). FITNESS FORUM. IDEA Fitness Journal, 3(8), 6-8.

Reents, S. (2000). Sport Gaines, R. (2006). Periodized Nutrition for Strength and Power Athletic Performance. NSCA’s Performance Training Journal, 5(6), 18-20.

East, M.. Williams, A.. Anderson, G.. & Velasco, J. (2006). FITNESS FORUM. IDEA Fitness Journal, 3(8), 6-8.
and exercise pharmacology. (1 ed., Vol. 1). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. Wrap up Micronutrient Requirements Important Micronutrients Antioxidants
Zinc Recommendations of amounts not established
Needs may be higher for athletes than for other individuals due to activity levels Antioxidants beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E
fight free radical damage

no specific recommendations
foods to eat: many free radicals during/post-exercise (esp high intensity) dark green vegetables
orange vegetables
citrus fruits Calcium important for bone health and muscle development
dairy = CHO, PRO, vit D

1000mg for men and women
foods to eat: dairy products
dark green vegetables promotes strong, lean, healthy body Iron high-intensity weight-bearing activities could cause:

Iron forms myoglobin (stores O2 in cells, needed for muscle contraction
consume heme and non-heme food sources hematuria (hemoglobin in urine)
damage of muscle tissue Other Micronutrients Boron



Zinc non-essential trace mineral
effects hormone levels

insulin metabolism regulation

muscle contraction and protein synthesis

regulates growth and development; heals wounds Joint Health Some speed/power athletes experience joint problems
Nutrients for helping with joint health protein
vitamin C
Vitamin E
Phsophorus Deficiency Vitamin deficiencies impair performance
Diet lacking adequate Vitamin C, E and iron could cause fatigue

Calcium deficiency = impaired muscle contractions and muscle cramping Vit E deficiency = muscle weakness and loss of coordination
Iron deficiency = anemia and fatigue, impairing performance Nutrient Recommendations muscle anabolism greater when EAA+CHO ingested before vs immediate, 1-hr or 3-hr post-exercise (Tipton et al, Rasmussen et al)
no difference found when 20g whole (whey) proteins consumed before or after (Tipton et al)

PRE-POST resistance exercise supplementation = greater increases LBM, muscle fibre hypertrophy, contractile proteins and [muscle glycogen] following exercise supplement (per 100g) = 40g PRO, 43g CHO, <0.5g Fat, 7g CrM
given 1g/kg BW per dose
2x daily either AM/PM or immediately before/after workout
3-6PM resistance training
habitual daily diet followed otherwise In general ... highly individualized
recommend amounts by how athlete prefers to fuel
if prefer whole foods/meals in advance:

if prefer to fuel immediately before: time course of digestion?
whole proteins reserved for 30+ mins pre-exercise ~6g EAA + ~35-40g high GI CHO in easily digestible form

eg. gatorade + BCAAs or a pre-
workout drink 400-1000kcal
20-40g Protein, 60-180g CHO, 10-20g Fats

eg. Spaghetti with meat sauce, lean turkey
burger, stirfry with chicken, etc 3-4 hours Pre-Event 200-400kcal
10-20g Protein, 30-50g CHO, 5-7g Fats

eg. Turkey sandwich, sports bars, rice and
beans, omelette with toast, etc 30-90 mins Pre-Event Immediately Before Event Liz Knox, Female Hockey Player Age: 23
Height: 5'5" (1.65m)
Weight: 67kg (148lbs)

Goal: improve body composition, maintain weight Athlete Profile #2 Maurice Greene, Male Sprinter Age: 26
Height: 5'9" (1.75m)
Weight: 82kg (180lbs)

Goal: maintain BW and LBM Athlete Profile #1 RASMUSSEN, B. B., K. D. TIPTON, S. L. MILLER, S. E. WOLF, and R. R. WOLFE. An oral amino acid-carbohydrate supplement en- hances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J. Appl. Physiol.88:386 –392,2000.

ESMARCK, B., J. L. ANDERSON, S. OLSEN, E. A. RICHTER, M. MIZUNo, and M. KJAER. Timing of post-exercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. J. Physiol. 535:301–311, 2001.

TIPTON, KD, RASMUSSEN, BB, MILLER, SL, WOLF, SE, OWENS-STOVALL, SK, PETRINI, BE, & WOLFE RR. Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281: E197–E206, 2001.

WILSON, J. & WILSON, GJ. Contemporary issues in protein requirements and consumption for resistance trained athletes. J. of the Intl Soc of Sports Nut. 3(1):7-27, 2006.

ROY, BD, TARNOPOLSKY, MA, MACDOUGALL, JD, FOWLES, J, & YARASHESKI, KE. Effect of glucose supplement timing on protein metabolism after resistance training. J. Appl. Physiol. 82:1882-1888, 1997.

PHILLIPS, S. Protein requirements and supplementation in strength sports. Nutrition. 20:689-695, 2004.

TIPTON, KD., JEUKENDRUP, AE., & HESPEL, P. Nutrition for the sprinter. J. of Sports Sc. 25:S5-S15, 2007.

SLATER, G. & PHILLIPS, S. Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: Sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding. J. of Sports Sc. 1:1-11, 2011.

BERNADOT, D. Advanced Sports Nutrition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2006. Print. References Summary GOAL: maximize lean body mass and athletic performance Pre-Exercise Nutrition Peri-Exercise Nutrition Post-Exercise Nutrition Goals: maintain blood sugar, optimize hydration, ensure empty stomach, positive protein balance

highly individual preferences

3-4hrs before: 20-40g PRO, 60-180g CHO, 10-20g FAT
30-90mins before: 10-20g PRO, 30-50g CHO, 5-7g FAT Goals: maintain blood sugar, optimize hydration

hydrate frequently - 4-8oz 6-7% CHO solution suggested Goals: rehydrate, replenish muscle glycogen stores, amplify protein synthesis, minimize protein degradation

1g/kg CHO immediately + 1hr post-exercise (decreased protein breakdown)

~20g protein within 2 hrs

REFUEL EARLY AND OFTEN! Hypohydration & Performance - Theoretical Hypohydration & Performance - Research Sprint Performance
Strength, power and in high-intensity exercise less than 2 minutes
Series of 6 sets of back squat exercises
Repeated Sprints
Mixture of intermittent high intensity, endurance, and skill – team sports Sprint Performance Judelson et al.
Body mass reductions of 2-3% through hypohydration
No significant effect on sprint performance Repeated Sprints Maxwell et al.
Appears to be adversely affected by hypohydration
Study done with
intermittent jogging with 2 hour recovery that divided into hypohydration group and euhydration group
repeated 20s sprints with 100s recovery in between
Euhydration: 0.1% loss of body mass
Hypohydration: 2% loss of body mass
Total sprinting time completely by euhydration group was significantly longer than hypohydration group Carbohydrates - primary fuel for working muscles
- essential for strength/power athlete performance
- A well balanced performance diet provides sufficient energy mostly in the form of carbohydrates with the balance of energy as protein and fats Role of Carbohydrates in Athletic Success CHO are a major fuel source for the brain and nervous system
CHO are a primary source of energy during strength and power events
-->Low energy results in:
lack of concentration
Dietary carbohydrates are stored in the body as glycogen in the liver and muscle During strength/power activity the body relies on stored glycogen to be released and used by the muscles and brain

If glycogen stores are depleted during exercise muscles fatigue also known as “hitting the wall” Carbohydrates provide a “protein sparing effect”. Athletes can maintain their muscle mass
When body glycogen stores are depleted protein will be used to “make” carbohydrate. CHO Requirements for the Strength/Power Athlete National Academy of Sciences Recommended
Daily Allowance (RDA)

Strength /Power Athletes RDA for carbohydrates is 3 to 5 grams of carbohydrate per pound body weight

For example a 200 lb athlete needs 600 to 1000 grams of CHO

Calculate your own! Carbohydrates requirements Carbohydrate Rich Foods in the Performance Diet Strength/Power athletes need “nutrient dense” carbohydrates (provide the most nutrients per calorie)

What makes a nutrient dense?

Grain based foods are rich in B vitamins which help produce energy

Winning choices: oatmeal, quinoa, brown rice, wild rice, cous cous. Carbohydrate–Rich Foods Fruits and vegetables are excellent carbohydrate sources. They are excellent sources of anti-oxidant nutrients, carotenoids and phytochemicals
Top nutrition performers:
kale, rainbow chard, potatoes, oranges, berries, bananas Performance Diet Strength/Power athletes need at least two carbohydrate-rich foods at every meal and at least one at every snack
They need to consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables , eight or more servings of grain based food and three or more servings of low fat dairy daily
They should eat 55%-60% of total daily energy intake from carbohydrates Timing Nutritional Intake for the Strength/Power Athlete Pre training snack: 100-400 kcal

Eat a meal comprised of mostly CHO 2-3 hours before the workout
*Limit fats
Strength/power athletes need some protein prior to workout for muscle synthesis

Post training: PRO within 1 hour, CHO within 2 hours. Timing During During strength/power workouts muscle glycogen depletes.

Consuming a sports drink during workout helps maintain muscle glycogen stores and provides energy Timing After Immediately after a workout it is important to consume mainly carbohydrates and some protein for recovery

The “glycogen replacement window” is the first two hours after exercise

New muscle protein is being synthesized after a strength/power workout Myths Components of a balanced meal 1. Complete protein
2. Grain
3. Green
4. Vegetable
5. Digestive Fat is delicious. Use it. Stable fats are best
Coconut oil
Grapeseed oil Ways to save moola. Ways to save time Summary
-Across literature, a higher body fat percentage results in decreased performance.
-Energy balance
-Weight gain: Increase daily calories 300 to 500kcal/day. Increase CHO, PRO, and UnSat Fats
-Weight loss: Decrease daily calories 300 to 500kcal/day, safe weight loss is about 1 to 2 pounds per week, still need to maintain nitrogen balance (+). Weight Management Carbohydrates Role of Carbohydrates in Athletic Success Summary Summary well balanced diet provides sufficient energy mostly in the form of CHO with balance from protein and fats
RDA for carbohydrates is 3-5 g/lb BW (6-10 g/kg BW)
55%-60% of total daily E
CHO provides E - without E the athlete may feel tired, irritable and lack concentration (interfere with performance)
glycogen stores can be depleted = fatigue and decreased performance.

In order to achieve optimal performance during a strength and power event the athletes needs to consume CHO. Carbohydrates Protein = key nutrient for maintaining and improving muscular strength, endurance, and power
Essential components of muscle, cell membranes, hormones, antibodies, and enzymes
Speed/Power RDA = 1.5 to 2.0 g/kg BW
Consume prior to strength/power workouts to enhance muscle synthesis
Consume some protein immediately following a workout for recovery and to maximize muscle protein synthesis
ingest protein in beverage form if possible (protein absorption and digestion more rapid in liquid state)
eat natural foods for protein sources

If a strength and power athlete consumes the right amount of protein mixed with carbohydrates and fats the athlete will maintain mass and increase performance. Protein Strength/power athletes burn very little fat during performance because energy demands are met by phosphagen and anaerobic systems
Amount, as with any diet, should be based on health, health history, and specific goals of the athlete
Fats should be minimized in hours leading up to and during training and competition
Strength/power athletes rely minimally on fat stores, so it is not necessary to replenish them following exercise
<10% saturated fats are ok, avoid trans fats Fats Summary Micronutrients Summary Recommendations of amounts have not been established- Needs may be higher for athletes than for sedentary individuals because of activity levels
Antioxidants- Fight free radical damage
Many free radicals during and post-exercise especially in high intensity activities
Calcium recommendations are 1,000mg for men and women
Nutrients helping with joint health include protein, calcium, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc and phosphorous
Research has shown that a vitamin deficiency impairs performance Summary •Periodization Summary
System of fluctuating the intake of macronutrients to optimize muscle strength hypertrophy. Nutrient periodization is a sensible practice for serious exercisers because it can modulate macronutrient intakes while reducing the chance of nutrient deficiencies over an extended period of time
-High calorie diet, CHO are key, meals before and after
-CHO 6-9 g/kg/day
-PRO- 1.7 g/kg/day
-FAT- make up the rest of the caloric space (about 20%)
-No structure in diet or training Fat Life's not fair. Portion References 6g 33g Yum.
Key in maintaining inflammation.
All about timing!
Avoid disturbances with training/competition.
Healthy food choices:
-Whole milk
-Coconut (in all forms) Chef status. Meal enhancement Buy in bulk.
Shop seasonally.
Frozen fruit and veggies. Designate one day of week for meal prep.
Prepare and freeze.
Pre-cut veggies.
Prepare dressings.
Recycle ingredients. Oatmeal recipe that will change your life:
1/2 cup steel cut oats
1/2 cup kefir
*Soak overnight. Wake up and eat it.

What do I do with my greens?
Sautee with garlic!
Chop finely, mix with romaine.

SPLIT INTO GROUPS! You’ll be happier and
perform better if you:
Drink agua.
Grab breakfast.
Eat every three hours. Components of a complete meal
1. Complete protein
2. Grain
3. Green
4. Vegetable
5. Digestive Don't go insane. When making food choices, ask yourself:
Did this come from the ground? Off days happen.

Be patient. Choices now effect later. Coffee is a diuretic.
Fat will make you fat.
Cosmetic strength means functional strength. Snacks Eat the cookie. Chia Pudding
1 whole can coconut milk
4-5 tbs chia
*Mix and set for 30 min.
Add maple syrup to taste.

Sports bars:
Lara bars
Kind bars
Trio bars Base for salad dressing:
1/4 cup olive oil
1 lemon, squeezed A healthy life style is a process. 5g 5g
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