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N5 Human Geography: Population and Development Topic Revision

Revision of Human Geography, Population and Development Topic
by

Mr T Simpson

on 5 January 2014

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Transcript of N5 Human Geography: Population and Development Topic Revision

Plucking
Revision Prezi
Remember that these revision Prezi's are designed to be used alongside your class notes. Use them to remind yourself about topics prior to an assessment or before your final exam - they are not intended as a single source of revision!
Lots of different things affect how densely or sparsely populated an area is.
Population
Density
Physical Factors
Climate - Few people live where the climate is extremely cold (e.g. Siberia, Russia) or extremely hot (e.g. Death Valley, USA) also where there is very little rain (e.g. Sahara Desert)
Soil - Areas with very good soil for growing crops are often densely populated (e.g. River Nile Valley) but areas with very bad soils make it hard to grow crops so are sparsely populated.
Relief - Areas that are very steep are hard and expensive to build on so very few people live there (e.g. mountainous areas)
Resources - Lots of people live where there are good natural resources such as coal or fresh water.
Human Factors
Good Communications - Areas with excellent road and railway networks and international links through airports and ports tend to be more densely populated (e.g. Europe)
Technological Development - Countries with advanced technologies and well educated people are more densely populated (e.g. Japan)
Economic Activities - Areas where there is a lot industry and trade have lots of people but areas which have farming or other primary industries as their main activity tend to have less people
We can divide these into human and physical factors:
Urbanisation
People also move to cities because of '
push factors
' such as poor farming land, natural disasters e.g. floods/drought, lack of medical services, basic sanitation provision etc.
In developing countries, people are drawn the the cities because of '
pull factors
'. This could be the hope of a better standard of living, more job opportunities, access to clean water, education, greater access to and range of services etc.
More than half of the world's population live in urban areas now. People in the developed world have always tended to live in urban areas, but in recent years there has been a rapid expansion of urban dwellers in developing countries.


is the global trend of people moving from rural areas (countryside) to urban areas (towns and cities).
Urbanisation
Cities with a population over 10 million are called '
megacities
'. The number of megacities is increasingly rapidly as people move to urban areas in their droves. Look at the growth in Megacities from 1950, to 2010 and projected populations for 2025 - what do you notice about where the largest megacities are found?
Megacities
Population data is gathered using a census; this is a count of all the people in all the households withing a country on a particular date. These are normally conducted once every 10 years and ask questions about the population including: Age, sex, occupation, religion, ethnicity etc.

Vital registrations (births, deaths and marriages help track population between census')
Why conduct a census?
Census' are the only type of survey which can give the government a detailed picture of the entire population. The information from a census allows the government to target their resources more effectively and to plan for housing, education, health and transport services in the years to come.
Problems conducting a census?
Census' are very expensive (UK 2011 £500m)
Literacy levels
Differing languages spoken within a country
Sheer size of some countries
War or political problems
Nomadic people without a fixed address
Poor communications to remote areas
Migration
Population Pyramids
The structure of a country's population depends upon the birth rates, death rates and migration in a country. This is best shown using a population pyramid. This shows the population in a graph according to age and gender at any one time. They can also help to identify the impact of natural disasters, war, major migration etc.
Influences on birth and death rates
A number of factors influence the
birth rate
and
death rate
of a country. The balance between these figures gives a country's
natural increase
rate (Birth rate - death rate = natural increase).
Demographic Transition Model
The Demographic Transition Model Shows how a country can change over time with its Birth Rate, Death Rate and Total Population
Stage 1:
High Birth Rate - Tradition of large Families, children needed to help work the land, lack of family planning / contraception
Death Rate - War/Famines are common, poor hygiene and sanitation, little in the way of medical advancements, little access to medicine
Low & Stable Population
Stage 2:
Birth Rate remains high for similar reasons to Stage 1
Death Rate - Improved medical care and sanitation
Rapidly expanding population
Stage 3:
Birth Rate - drops as contraception becomes available and less children are required to work on the land due to the mechanisation of farming
Death Rate - With continued advances in medicine this stabalises at a relatively low level
Population continues to grow rapidly
Stage 4:
Birth Rate - continues to fall and stabalises as birth control is widely available. Women and becoming more career focused so are marrying later meaning they have less children
Death Rate - remains low
Population growth stabalises
Stage 5:
Birth Rate - continued desire for small families with children opting to have children later in life and less children due to the costs involved
Death Rate - starts to rise as population ages, meaning greater pressure is put on services e.g. hospitals and care homes
Population starts to decline
The country needs to spend a lot of money on hospitals and training doctors and nurses because of the large number of births
New schools need to be built and new teachers trained for all the new young people
Often a country cannot afford this and often young girls do not get educated
There may not be enough food to feed everybody so there could be famine
There may not be enough jobs so high levels of unemployment and more crime
There may not be enough housing so people are forced to build shanty towns
Problems associated with rapid population growth
Lots of developing countries have a much higher birth rate than death rate and therefore have a rapidly increasing population. There are lots of problems that this can cause.
Problems associated with slow population growth
In many developed countries the life expectancy is increasing so there are many more old people in the country (an aging population). There are lots of problems that this can cause.
Lots more care homes and medical care for the elderly is needed
The government will need to pay much more money for pensions
There will be less people in the 'economically active' population there will be less tax being raised to pay for these services
Taxes may have to increase or the age of retirement will need to rise
There will be less 'young dependents' so schools may have to close
Case Study: China's One Child Policy
China introduced the One Child Policy to try to reduce its already huge population from expanding too rapidly
Development
Development is the use of resources and technology to bring about an increase in the standard of living within a country. Any improvement that is made in the standard of living of the people in a country is called development.
Single indicators of development
Economic Indicators
- these are to do with money and the economy. Some examples include the following:
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or Gross National Product (GNP)
Average annual income per capita
% of population employed in manufacturing
Social Indicators
- these are to do with people. Some examples include the following:
Adult literacy rates (%)
Average life expectancy at birth
Infant mortality rates per 1000 live births
Number of cars per 1000 population
The problem with single indicators

They are too broad/generalised as they are averages. i.e. they hide differences within a country. e.g. Saudi Arabia's high GDP due to oil wealth owned by a minority.

Other problems could be: north/south divide, rural/urban, male/female, racial and tribal. Statistics may be unreliable. Difficulty in collecting data from censuses. Many births and deaths go unrecorded. How do you really measure real quality of life/happiness?
Combined or composite indicators of development
PQLI
(
P
hysical
Q
uality of
L
ife
I
ndex
)
uses Life expectancy, Infant mortality and Adult literacy. You need to know what each of these is. As it uses a number of indicators it reduces the problem of there being big differences in the average.
HDI (H
uman
D
evelopment
I
ndex
)
uses Life expectancy, Educational attainment and Purchasing power of a country. You must be able to describe the above and comment on the usefulness of each of these combined indicators.
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