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ABC Book of Physical Science

Physical Science
by

Anna-Maria Springman

on 28 February 2011

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Transcript of ABC Book of Physical Science

ABC BOOK OF
PHYSICAL SCIENCE Absolute Zero

A Absolute Zero is the lowest possible
temperature, where thermal energy is
as close to zero as possible. At this point,
there is no movement in
individual molecules.The
Absolute Zero temperature
is -273 degrees Celsius,
andcannot be reached. Binary Compound B A binary compound is a chemical
compound made up of
two elements. For
example water (H2O)
is a binary compound. http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryfaqs/f/absolutezero.htm

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://urbancanteen.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/plastic-water-bottle.jpg&imgrefurl=http://urbancanteen.com/blog/&usg=___bl7R7AIry4ZHBSmVDf3Z6_dFD8=&h=499&w=390&sz=54&hl=en&start=43&zoom=1&tbnid=e_-eLLyebcs1hM:&tbnh=129&tbnw=101&ei=OQ5UTfTwDsq2tgfBqYmnCQ&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwater%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1020%26bih%3D567%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=235&oei=MQ5UTfTMGIm_gQf2573mCA&esq=9&page=4&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:43&tx=64&ty=69
Coordinates C Coordinates are values that give the position
relative to
an origin.
They are
usually
expressed
like this:
(2,5); stating
the x-axis
first, and
then the y-axis. Differaction Energy Friction group horsepower
isotopes Joule Kinetic Energy lipids
machine noble gases organic chemistry protiens Q! Radiant Energy Scientific Method Thermometer Unit Viscosity Watt Xenon
ytterbium Zinc Differaction is the bending
of awave around
objects or the
spreading after
passing through
a gap.

D Friction is a force that resists motion. Because of friction, moving
objects
eventually
stop. It is
impossible
to compeletely
eliminate
friction. A group is a column of
the periodic table. There are
18 groups in the standard
periodic table.
For example,
the 18th group
on the periodic
tables is called the "noble gases" group. G H Horsepower is a unit of power
1 horsepower = 745.699872 watts
The term
horsepower
was invented
by the engineer James Watt. I Isotopes are atoms of the
same element,
but that
have different
numbers of
neutrons in
the nucleaus.
For example:
carbon 13 and
carbon 14 have
the same number
of protons but a different number of neutrons. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://ldtstudio.coe.uga.edu/file.php/216/carbon_isotopes.jpg&imgrefurl=http://ldtstudio.coe.uga.edu/mod/glossary/view.php%3Fid%3D2360&usg=__CQew0TDRQuXHlCQsya793cxHAwk=&h=376&w=280&sz=19&hl=en&start=0&sig2=ouXUmtjqgVmYP14t2sypWg&zoom=1&tbnid=Zkqf_yjZX96PsM:&tbnh=138&tbnw=103&ei=FnJZTeqkOYT68AbIiP2nBw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcarbon%2B12%2Band%2Bcarbon%2B14%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us%26rlz%3D1I7TSHB_en%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D599%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=265&oei=NHJZTcrgOIH98Aaug5mnBw&page=1&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0&tx=55&ty=65
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/atom_isotopes.html
http://www.google.com/images?q=absolute+zero&rls=com.microsoft:en-us&oe=UTF-8&startIndex=&startPage=1%3B&rlz=1I7TSHB_en&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=og&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi&biw=1259&bih=599
cpo science "Foundations of Physical Science" 2009
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://64.224.111.143/handbook/periodic/periodic_table.gif&imgrefurl=http://64.224.111.143/handbook/periodic/&h=480&w=580&sz=19&tbnid=G4wY8RtD2Q3AMM:&tbnh=111&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dperiodic%2Btable&zoom=1&q=periodic+table&usg=__4syH_XdxsIRxbRb6k_uMRxJprB8=&sa=X&ei=K3VZTZ2GFcH38AbV762vBw&ved=0CEUQ9QEwAw
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Units_of_energy
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://math.lanl.gov/~yi/lipid/membrane.jpg&imgrefurl=http://math.lanl.gov/~yi/lipid.html&usg=__xnmpdXe7gFpuN3Pf6pDsoHq_rIs=&h=375&w=559&sz=241&hl=en&start=0&sig2=5qTX1Z02m4rr3hTZjIUVFQ&zoom=1&tbnid=GVsKVP-2sbZcDM:&tbnh=123&tbnw=184&ei=FJdZTb7WM5Pltgf8k-DlDA&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlipids%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us%26rlz%3D1I7TSHB_en%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D599%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=578&oei=mpZZTffIGcH68AbOvpWcBw&page=1&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&tx=99&ty=42
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http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.basaldigitalthermometer.com/images/basal_digital_thermometer.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.basaldigitalthermometer.com/&usg=__ntAnvG0ETzo-LrjdAaefaxDVIwg=&h=360&w=360&sz=28&hl=en&start=0&sig2=sCRiP6QCrceKQVTXVNlfTA&zoom=1&tbnid=JsDRVDI4uqV-CM:&tbnh=145&tbnw=145&ei=2ehZTaKBMcT68AaM8qD7DA&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthermometer%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us%26rlz%3D1I7TSHB_en%26biw%3D1259%26bih%3D627%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=278&oei=2ehZTaKBMcT68AaM8qD7DA&page=1&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:17,s:0&tx=96&ty=77
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.math.com/school/subject2/images/S2U4L1GLgrid.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.math.com/school/subject2/lessons/S2U4L1GL.html&usg=__Zjs_7SffbwlCj8LqQU4PiEyNkNQ=&h=269&w=277&sz=14&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=qnJvimBDMnuWwM:&tbnh=132&tbnw=136&ei=gx5dTcnIHcnZgAeC-qj7DQ&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcoordinate%2Bplane%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GPEA_en%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D457%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=616&vpy=115&dur=421&hovh=215&hovw=221&tx=118&ty=154&oei=gx5dTcnIHcnZgAeC-qj7DQ&page=1&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://periodictable.com/Samples/054.6/s9s.JPG&imgrefurl=http://periodictable.com/Elements/054/index.html&usg=__DVzzw6146GHQHvwaQv_ZxM71ovA=&h=356&w=356&sz=18&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=tsXPRliTJPME4M:&tbnh=127&tbnw=127&ei=gypdTfrYC5LegQe80M2DDg&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthe%2Belement%2Bxenon%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox%26rlz%3D1I7GPEA_en%26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D457%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=207&oei=gypdTfrYC5LegQe80M2DDg&page=1&ndsp=11&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&tx=105&ty=43 A joule is the SI unit of energy.
one joule has enough energy to




push with a force of 1newton for
a distance of 1 meter. The abbreviation
for Joule is (J) J The Kinetic Energy of an object is the energy it has
because of its
motion. For
example,
roller coaster
cars reach
their highest potential engergy when they reach the bottom of the track because they had a fast downward motion before. K A machine is something that uses energy to
make
something,
or do a
certain
task that
it is buit to do. Simple Machines do not use electricity. Some examples would be Inclined PlaneWheel and axle, Lever, Pulley, Wedge, and Screw. lipids are compounds that are rich in
energy. Lipids are basically another
word
for fat.
This
group
usually
includes fats, waxes, and oils.An example of a lipid would be canola oil. L M N The noble gases group is the 18th group on the periodic table.
It is located
on the far
right of the
table. This
group contains
things such as argon, neon, helium, krypton, and a few others. Organic chemistry is a department
of chemistry
that focuses
on studying
carbon
compouds,
which are
also known
as organic
molecules. O P Protiens are a large group of molecules. They are
made of
carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen,
nitrogen,
and occasionally, sulfur. Some animal parts such as fingernails, hair, muscle, and skin contain protien. We also eat kinds of proteins, such as milk, cheese, meat, and eggs. Radiant Energy is a form of energy that is transfered by
electromagnetic
waves. Both
light and
radio
waves
are formes
of radiant
energy. R the Scientific method is a method of learning.
the steps are as follows:
1. State the problem
2. Research the problem
3. State the hypothesis
4. Test the hypothesis
5. Analyze the results
6. State the conclusion
7. Repeat the work S T A thermometer is an instrument
used to
measure
temperature.
if a person
has a fever,
we use a thermometer to check thier
body temperatue. Viscosity is a measure of a liquids
resistance
to flow.
For example,
maple syrup
has a higher
viscosity than
water. We can
see this because it takes a longer amount for maple syrup to flow than water. V F Energy is a quantity that describes the
abilitiy
of an
object
to change
or cause
changes.
There are
4 types of
energy.
They are
Chemical, Heat, Mechanical, and Electrical energy. E Units are a fixed amount of
something,
like a (m)
for distance.
For example,
238 meters.
U Watts are a unit of power equal to one joule per second.
1,000 watts
equal one
kilowatt.
The engineer
James Watt
came up with
the term Watt.
(W) is the
abbreviation
for watt. James Watt W Xenon was discoveredd by William Ramsay and Morris
Travers
in 1898,
in residue
left after
evaporating
liquid air.
The gas is
used in
making
electron
tubes, batericidal lamps, stoboscopic lamps, and some other uses. Xenon belongs to the 18th group in the periodic
table, otherwise known as the "noble gases group. X Y Ytterbium was discovered by Carl Gustaf Mosander (a swedish chemist)
in 1843 in the
small town of
Ytterby, Sweden.
He named it
ytterbia. Later,
in 1878 Jean
Charles Galissard
de Marignac
(a swiss chemist) found that erbia was made of 2 parts. He then named the whole element "ytterbium". One for ytterbium are to improve stainless steels mechanical properties, as well as many others. Ytterbium does not
belong to a certain group. Metallic zinc was produced in the 13th century A.D, But zinc
has been
known for
thousands of
years, even
before anyone
knew that it
was a distinct
element. Some
uses for it are:
using it to
mix with other metals such as Brass, nickel silver, bronze, silver, and aluminum. It is also occasionally put in food. Z
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