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Classical Music

Understanding Music
by

Ellen Smith

on 29 January 2015

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Transcript of Classical Music

Mozart: Symphony No. 40
The Classical Orchestra:
The orchestra, which had been relatively small in the Baroque Period, was now much bigger.

What's more, composers began to make more use of brass instruments such as French Horn and Trumpet.

Woodwind instrument such as Flutes, Oboes, Bassoons and Clarinets became increasingly popular throughout the classical period and was fully fledged section towards the end of the Classical Period.

More percussion instruments such as the Timpani were used, but this section was still relatively small.


The Symphony:
The Symphony was a new type of composition which was developed during the Classical Period.

It was a large scale piece for an orchestra which involved all of the orchestra playing together (tutti)

There wasn't much independant movement within the parts and so symphonies are usually described as having a homophonic texture.
Understanding Music -
The Classical Period

1750 - 1810 approx

Classical Music...
With your shoulder partner, discuss what comes to mind when you think of the term '
classical music'
c
lassical or
C
lassical?
When we think of classical music, we think of it as a genre, ie "My mum likes classical music but I like Rock."

In the study of music though, it has a much more precise meaning

It refers a certain style period, and that is what we're going to look at today...
Today's Aims
To gain a basic understanding of the of the Classical Period (1750-1810)
To explore different features (concepts) present in Classical Music
To look at some of the composers of this period.
Learning intentions:
What do you notice about the size of the orchestra?

What types of instruments are playing
Let's set the scene:
Music in the
Classical Period
was not as
'
busy
'
sounding as that in the
Baroque Period
, and it had a more
Homophonic
Texture.
Compare these two images:
There was lot's of
imitation
and
repetition
.
The
Piano
replaced the
Harpsichord
the instrument of choice
The Main composers were
Mozart
and
Haydn
In this next clip, listen out for
repetition
and
imitation
, a common feature in Classical music.
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Haydn's Symphony No. 1 in D "the Clock" - 2nd Movement, Andante
Daddy of them all...
Often described as the 'Father of Symphony, Austrian born Franz Joseph Haydn was one of the first composers to write symphonies

Because music was the only form of income for many composers of the Classical Period, they constantly had to produce new works.

Haydn for example wrote a staggering 106 symphonies!
The
Classical
Concerto
The Concerto
The
concerto
was another type of composition which became increasingly
popular
throughout the
Classical Period
.

It usually consisted of
three movements.

Where a
Symphony
involves the
whole orchestra
playing together
(Tutti)
, a concerto features a
solo instrument
which is
accompanied
by the orchestra
Can you handle a little extra?
Sometimes in a
concerto
, there is a section where the
soloist
can
show off
thier talent by playing a
Cadenza
.

When the
soloist
performs thier
Cadenza
, the rest of the orchestra
stop playing
.

This allows the
soloist
a lot more
freedom
and they can
change
about the
tempo
or even
improvise
the notes.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
"I pay no attention whatever to anybody's praise or blame, I simply follow my heart...
"
W. A. Mozart
Probably one of the world's most famous composers,
Mozart
was born in
Salzburg
in Austria

His father, Leopold Mozart, was a well respected musician at the time and eagerly encouraged his son to play music from an early age

He is often described as a
child prodigy
, and wrote his first piece of music at the
age of four
!

He wrote many
concertos
, and is particularly famous for his use of the
clarinet
(a new instrument at the time)
What is the left hand doing?
Listen to the excerpt of a piano concerto and choose which stave best describes the music in the left hand
A)
B)
Alberti Bass:
Alberti Bass
is a
common
feature in
Classical Music,
and one of the most sure fire ways of identifying a
style period

Alberti Bass
-
Broken chords
played by the
left hand
outlining harmonies whilst the right hand plays the melody.
What have we got so far?
The orchestra was bigger and contained more brass and woodwind.
A new type of composition called a 'Symphony' was pioneered by Haydn
Music in the Classical Period was less 'busy' sounding than Baroque, and has lots of imitation and repetition
Let's recap:
Symphony - A piece of music for an orchestra, usually of a Homophonic texture with lots of imitation and repetion

Concerto - A large scale work like a symphony, but with a solo instrument ie clarinet, which is accompanied by the orchestra. Usually of a Homophonic texture

Cadenza - a section in a concerto where the soloist can show off thier talent by playing without the orchestra accompanying

Alberti Bass - Broken chords played by the left hand outlining harmonies whilst the right hand plays the melody.
Success Criteria:
We have gained an understanding of music in the Classical Era

We are able to identify concepts common to this period: Symphony, Concerto, Cadenza and Alberti Bass

We can name the main composers of this period


Exam Style Question:
Haydn's Trumpet Concerto in E Flat
Haydn excerpt with cross rhythms
Lesson Starter:
18/02/2014
A ................. is a large scale work for orchestra, and it usually consists of ........ movements. It first appeared in the early............. period. This period spans from 1750 to ...............
What else can you tell me about the music in this period?
Today's Aims:
Today we will:
Expand
our knowledge of different
concepts
found in the
Classical Period
.
Continue
with our
solo performing
.
We will know we have been succesfull when
:
We can
identify
a
concerto
or a
cadenza
in an extract of
music
.
Let's have a listen:
While you're listening, think about the following points:
How is this different from a
symphony
?
What is the
main instrument
of this excerpt? What's the
significance
of this insturment in this period?
What is the
texture
of the excerpt
The
concerto
in the
Classical Period
is a
development
of the ones we find in the
Baroque period
.

Even through there are two
different parts
in a concerto, the
texture
is still
homophonic
.

Mozart
was a
pioneer
for
concertos
in the classical period, writing a staggering
29 for piano
,
four for French horn
,
six for violin
,
two for flute
, and
one
each for
clarinet
,
oboe
,
bassoon
and others for various combinations of instruments.
Haydn
was a bit of a beast at them too.
So is that all?
Almost...

Concertos
were usually written for
virtuosic musicians
- instrumentalists who were
extremely talented
. Many composers, such as
Haydn
and
Mozart
would write concertos for thier
friends
.
Cadenzas
were
originally
left to the soloist to
improvise
, however, towards the end of the Classical Period,
composers
began to
write them in
.
The soloist usually plays a
trill
to
indicate
the
end
of thier
cadenza
, and to
signal
the
orchestra
to
come back in
.
Listen up:
SymphAYE or SymphonNAY?
Bonus: What is the time signature?
Green
for AYE
Red
for NAY
Show me using your hands
SymphAYE or SymphonNAY?
Green
for AYE
Red
for NAY
Justify your answer?
SymphAYE or SymphonNAY?
Green
for AYE
Red
for NAY
If
AYE
,
why
?
If
NAY
,
Por que
?
Mission Accomplished
I am able to
define
a concerto in relation to the
Classical Period
.
I am able to identify a
cadenza
in relation to the
Classical Period
.
I can
identify
both of these features in a piece of
music
Full transcript