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Assignment 2 Long term effects of exercise
Transcript of Assignment 2 Long term effects of exercise
Skeletal System (P3/M2)
P3/M2 Musculoskeletal system
The musculoskeletal system is made up of muscles, bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons. The main function of the musculoskeletal system is for movement, but also for structure and protection of the body. There are lots of chronic responses that happen to the musculoskeletal system which include:
Increase in tendon strength
Increase in myoglobin stores
Increase in mitochondria,
Increased storage of glycogen and fat
Increased muscle strength
Increased tolerance to lactic acid
Chronic exercise is the long term effect of exercise on the body
2. Know the body's response to long term exercise
Regular exercise slows the rate of skeletal ageing. Regardless of age, those who maintain physically active lifestyles have greater bone mass compared to those who are sedentary. Chronic responses that happen to the skeletal are:
Increased in bone calcium stores
Increased stretch of ligaments
Increased thickness of hyaline cartilage
Increased production of synovial fluid
In common with the cardiovascular system the respiratory system undergoes specific adaptations in response to a systematic training programme which helps to maximize its efficiency. The muscles demand more oxygen and the corresponding increase in carbon dioxide production stimulates faster and deeper breathing.
The energy system is composed of 3 different systems which will all work to give the muscles enough energy to carry out physical activity. During chronic exercise the body will respond by adapting itself to make the energy systems more efficient.
Chronic exercise will effect the musculoskeletal system, energy systems, cardiovascular system and the respiratory system
The heart and blood vessels of the circulatory system adapt to repeated bouts of exercise in a several ways:
Increased in stoke volume
Increase in cardiac output
Decreased resting heart rate
Increase in blood volume
Long term exercise causes our hearts to increase in strength. Just like any other muscle, the heart becomes stronger because of exercise. The left ventricle thickens, causing an increase in strength of the heart's contractions. Thus, more blood is pumped around the body per beat (increase in Stroke Volume). The increase in cardiac hypertrophy means that muscles can be provided with more blood, oxygen and nutrients while performing sports
Cardiac Hypertrophy is an advantage for athletes in many sports. Football players have to be durable, in order to last the whole duration of the match, Cardiac Hypertrophy will provide more oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles which will increase muscular contractions. As a result, the players will be able to run faster, longer and tackle the opponents more effectively.
INCREASE IN STROKE VOLUME
Stroke Volume (SV) is the volume of the blood that is pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat.
Stroke volume during rest has shown to be significantly higher after a prolonged endurance training program. The muscles in our body are therefore provided with more blood per minute (Cardiac Output) during maximal levels of exercise. Because of this, the delivery of oxygen and nutrients is provided more efficiently to the working muscles, allowing them to further contract with greater force during sports.
INCREASE CARDIAC OUTPUT
Cardiac Output is the volume of blood that is being pumped by the heart in 1 minute. Cardiac output levels increase during long-term exercise, because of an increase in Stroke Volume. Both Stroke volume and Cardiac output are increased due to an increase in Cardiac Hypertrophy. As individual's age and get older, their maximum cardiac levels decrease because of a decrease in their maximum heart rate.
An increase in Cardiac Output is an advantage in synchronized swimming. Athletes must hold their breath under water for a certain time. While that is taking place, they will perform various moves with their arms and legs to create a synchronized effect. Because of this, the athletes will sometimes have a shortage of breath, so, if Cardiac Output is increased, they will be able to perform underwater for longer because there is more blood being pumped every minute which then provides the working muscles such as hamstrings with nutrients and oxygen.
DECREASE IN RESTING HEART RATE
The resting heart rate of an individual reduces as a result of long-term exercise. This makes our hearts stronger, meaning it can pump and contract more blood in each contraction (Increase in SV). As a result, our hearts do not have to beat as often, as we are provided with either more blood.
A decrease in resting heart rate will reduce the workload on the heart. The quicker it takes for your heart rate to return to a resting rate the fitter the individual. Bradicardia is a heart rate below 60BPM.
To decrease resting heart rate, long and continuous exercise must be undertaken. This may include long-distance running, swimming and cycling.
The development of the capillary network can be enhanced by long-term exercise. As a result, the blood flow that our muscles receive is increased because the capillaries have increased in size and in the number of blood vessels. This allows our muscles to be provided with a more efficient supply of energy, oxygen and nutrients through the delivered blood.
This allows our muscles to contract more in sports. In capillaries and blood vessels, diffusion of gases takes place through the semi-permeable walls. This means that our system can get rid of gases such as Carbon Dioxide more efficiently and also Lactic acid which would cause fatigue.
INCREASE IN BLOOD VOLUME
Blood volume represents the amount of blood circulating in your body. This varies from person to person and is a result of training.
Through training blood volume will increase. This increase is a result of capillarision. Due to the increase of blood vessels there is more of a network for blood to reach the working muscles.
During exercise the body is able to transport larger volumes of blood around the body in order to supply the muscles with oxygen and nutrients and remove carbon dioxide and lactic acid. As a result of capillarision the circulatory system is able to hold more blood and deliver it to the working muscles when needed.
REDUCTION IN RESTING BLOOD PRESSURE
Exercise causes your blood pressure to rise for a short time. However, when you stop exercising blood pressure should return to normal. The quicker it does this, the fitter you are likely to be.
Through long term exercise your blood pressure will naturally decrease, this is because your body is able to cope with a lower resting blood pressure. However, this blood pressure will quickly increase again if the exercises are not done on a regular basis.
Having a lower blood pressure means that arteries, organs and tissues are not being damaged as they would be if it was high meaning that they are more likely to be in better shape than someone with higher blood pressure.
DECREASE RECOVERY TIME
Heart rate recovery is a measure of how much your heart rate falls during the first minute after exercise. The time it takes for the athletes heart rate to return to their resting heart rate, is their total recovery time.
The fitter the athlete, the quicker it takes for their heart rate to return to normal after exercise. Fitter individuals generally recover more rapidly because their cardiovascular system can adapt more quickly to the imposed demands of exercise.
This is an advantage in Boxing. In the final rounds of a boxing match, the boxers will be very tired because of the constant fighting between 2 opponents. During the short break between rounds, boxers use this time so to recover and are able to breathe properly and supply their working muscles, such as biceps and triceps with more oxygen so they can keep contracting and hitting their opponent. This is an advantage because they will be able to perform they way that they used to in the earlier matches, because they have recovered really fast.
INCREASE AEROBIC FITNESS
An individual's body may adapt to exercise if they exercise for a period of weeks/months, e.g. the heart becoming stronger. The physiological changes that occur with repeated exposure to exercise can improve and individual's exercise capacity and efficiency. A heart can become more efficient and its endurance capacity can be increased with aerobic training. This is because of cardiac hypertrophy and capillarisation.
An increase in Aerobic Fitness is an advantage in an 800M race. This is a long distance race, so our aerobic energy systems are used. If the aerobic fitness of an athlete are increased, they are provided with a more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the muscles and their body removes carbon dioxide quicker. Working muscles, such as quadriceps and hamstrings are provided with greater levels of oxygen because of the increase in aerobic fitness. This allows the muscles to contract, allowing the athletes to run even faster.
Muscle hypertrophy involves an increase of skeletal muscles as a result of increases in the volume of contractile proteins.
Whenever someone takes part in weight training it will have a massive effect on the muscles and the tendons, this is because the muscle fibers inside of them will tear. Muscle fibers will be repaired using proteins through food and supplements. Whenever muscles fibers get repaired like this they will become larger and stronger. This process is hypertrophy.
Males have greater potential to achieve increases in muscle bulk due to having higher levels of testosterone.
Muscular hypertrophy improves muscular endurance which in turn reduces fatigue enabling the athlete to perform muscular contractions for a longer period of time.
INCREASE IN MYOGLOBIN STORES
Myoglobin is defined as a red protein containing haemoglobin found in the muscles that binds and stores oxygen. Myoglobin is responsible for delivering oxygen to the mitochondria.
Through regular training muscles increase their oxidative capacity. This is achieved by an increase in the number of mitrochondria within the muscle cells, an increase in the supply of ATP and an increase in the quantity of enzymes involved in respiration.
Increased myoglobin stores will benefit an athlete as more oxygen will be able to combine to the increased myoglobin stores which enables more oxygen getting to the working muscles. In addition an increase in mitochondria will aid with ATP resynthesis thus enabling aerobic exercise to continue for longer.
INCREASE IN TENDON STRENGTH
Tendons are tough bands of fibrous connective tissue that connect muscles to bones, which are designed to withstand tension.
Through regular exercise a common adaption is muscle growth. In order for the tendons to cope with this change they also increase in size, strength and flexibility. Tendons need to do this otherwise when the muscles gets bigger and stronger they will not be able to cope with the pressure and tension and therefore become damaged.
Different exercises will have different effects on tendons e.g. weight training will make them stronger but aerobic exercise will increased their endurance. This will benefit an athlete because more strain and pressure will be able to be put on the tendons without them getting damaged and therefore reducing the chance of injury.
INCREASED NUMBER OF MITOCHONDRIA
Mitochondria is an organelle that contains enzymes responsible for energy production. They are power stations of the cells, responsible for converting ingested food into energy.
When long term exercise is performed muscles will increase their oxidative capacity, this is how muscles adapt themselves to chronic exercise so that they can maintain the activity for a long period of time. Mitochondria is the site where oxygen and glucose combine in order to make ATP. Therefore increased amounts of mitochondria will enable the body to create energy at a quicker rate required for aerobic activity.
This will benefit an athlete as more energy will be available for the muscles which need it on order to carry out physical activity.
INCREASED STORAGE OF GLYCOGEN AND FAT
Fat is a substance found in all humans which is used for energy. Glycogen is the main form of carbohydrate storage. It is readily converted to glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs.
Increased storage of glycogen and fats is used for aerobic exercise that last for a long period of time (marathons, ironmans etc). Through aerobic training the body can break down and use fats and glycogen more efficiently for energy production allowing the athlete to go further.
INCREASE TOLERANCE TO LACTIC ACID
INCREASE IN BONE CALCIUM STORES
INCREASED STRETCH IN LIGAMENTS
Bones are connected to other bones in our body by our Ligaments. Regular exercise will improve and increase the flexibility and strength of ligaments.
Athletes require stronger tendons and more pliable ligaments to handle the demands of a progressive training program. For example, if an athlete lifts progressively increasing weights as part of a strength-training program, their muscles will get stronger. To accommodate this the tendons have to increase their load-bearing capacity, while the ligaments need to adapt their pliability. This adaptation occurs when fibroblast secretions increase the production of collagen relative to the training load.
Most Gymnasts complete a daily stretching program. This makes their muscles become stretchy and ready to undertake exercise. Because their muscles become stretchy, it allows them to perform difficult stances or moves that require flexible movements, such as multiple back flips. If the muscles of the Gymnasts are stretched and prepared properly, it will allow them to perform very well, increase their variety of performing complex moves and increase the chance of winning against their opponents.
INCREASED THICKNESS OF HYALINE CARTILAGE
The Hyaline is the most common type of cartilage in our bodies and is found on the surfaces of bones. This helps us to protect them from wearing and tearing. The hyaline cartilage also allows us to absorb shock and force in sports, e.g. when landing from a jump. The cartilage becomes thicker and thicker with regular and continuous exercise.
For example: Basketball players are jumping up and down regularly, whether it is to shoot, block or rebound the ball. If the thickness of the players' hyaline cartilage are increased, it will allow the knees of the players to absorb the shock and force that is caused by the landing of the jump. This is an advantage, as there is a reduced possibility of injury, e.g. broken/dislocated knee when landing back down on the floor. The thickness of the cartilage assures safety when landing in basketball.
INCREASE IN THE PRODUCTION OF THE SYNOVIAL FLUID
INCREASED VITAL CAPACITY
Vital capacity is the maximum amount of oxygen an individual can expel, after maximum inspiration. The Vital Capacity of an individual can be increased by undertaking long-term exercise. Normally, our vital capacity is approximately 4800cm3. As a result, our working muscles in sports are provided with a more efficient supply of oxygen.
An increase in Vital Capacity will be greatly beneficial to any athlete performing an aerobic sport, e.g. marathon running. Marathon runners need a huge supply of oxygen when competing against other racers. This is because the marathon lasts several hours. Because of this, The increased vital capacity will allow the working muscles to be provided with a more efficient supply of oxygen, e.g. to the quadriceps and gastrocnemius. This allows these muscles to contract more, as they are provided with more nutrients, energy and oxygen by the increase in Vital Capacity. This means they are able to run faster, and increase the chances of winning.
INCREASE IN MINUTE VENTILATION
INCREASED STRENGTH OF RESPIRATORY MUSCLES
INCREASE IN OXYGEN DIFFUSION RATE
INCREASED AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC ENZYMES
As a result of long-term exercise, it brings a number of cellular changes which enhances the muscle tissues to create
An increase in size of mitochondria is a cellular adaptation which usually increases the enzymes of the Aerobic System. As a result of long-term continuous and regular training.
Changes are also undertaken by the Anaerobic energy system. This includes an increase of enzymes that control the anaerobic breakdown of the glucose in our bodies.
An increase in aerobic and anaerobic enzymes is an advantage in Sports like Tennis. A match of tennis can take several hours , if the scores are close. The increase in aerobic enzymes allows the tennis players to keep moving and contracting their working muscles, such as biceps and quadriceps because they have an increase in energy. It also allows them to hit the ball harder with the bat, as their biceps will be provided with a lot of energy. This means the muscle will contract more, allowing the player to hit the ball really hard.
INCREASE USE OF FAT AS AN ENERGY SOURCE
When we undertake low intensity exercise, our bodies use fat as its main source of energy. If exercise extends for long periods, Fat Oxidation increases, as Glycogen levels deplete. With long-term effects of exercise taken into consideration, a trained athlete has a greater opportunity to burn and use fat as their source of energy.
Continuous training such as long-distance running will make more use of the fat stores in our bodies to use as energy during exercise. This makes athletes Lean,e.g. goalkeepers, 1,500M racers and gymnasts have to be lean and agile in order to perform difficult stances/moves.
INCREASE IN MUSCLE STRENGTH
An overload of exercise causes an increase in muscle size and strength. This can be achieved by increasing the duration and the intensity of a continuous exercise, e.g. weightlifting. It can also be increased by increasing the number of repetitions and sets of an exercise, as the muscles are working for a longer duration, and at a higher intensity. In case of resistance training, muscle strength can be increased by using additional weight to perform the exercise
An increase in Muscle Strength is greatly beneficial to
Weightlifters. These athletes must lift heavier and heavier weights, repeatedly, in order to beat their opponents. The increase in muscle strength will allow them to lift the heavy bar upwards because their muscles have grown in size and strength, allowing to do so. This increases the chances of winning because the muscle strength will allow you to lift heavier weights than your opponent.
P3: Describe the long-term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system and energy system
P4: Describe the long-term effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system and respiratory system
M2: Explain the long-term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and energy systems
Lactic acid is produced as a waste product and the limiting factor of exercise. It causes fatigue after vigorous exercise, e.g. Marathons. Muscles become stimulated to become more intolerant to lactic acid, as a result of long term exercise. The body and muscles become more efficient at clearing away the lactic acid from our system.
The intolerance to lactic acid causes our capillary networks to extend. This allows a greater supply of blood to the working muscles, providing oxygen and nutrients so our muscles have enough energy during exercise. As an energy source, our muscles use fats we consume to use while undertaking sports. Muscles also make better use of oxygen, as it allows the body to work at a higher intensity, for longer, without fatiguing.
As a result of long term exercise, the bones in our bodies become stronger. Due to this, mineral stores also increase in our bodies. Our bones are strengthened as a result of the stress that is placed on them by exercise. All of this results in greater quantities of collagen and calcium stored within our bones. The main protein of connective tissue is Collagen. This reduces the risk of
A characterized disease by a change in the structure of the bone and the loss of mass of the bone. The poor structure of the bone will result in it being brittle and weak. This increases the risk of fractures of the bone
The supportive connective tissue that our joints are surrounded by, are also strengthened because of calcium.
An increase in Bone Calcium is an advantage in Rugby. For most of the game, the players will most likely collide with each other frequently, fighting for the ball. The increase in bone calcium gives their bones strength. To do so, the players must have strong bones to absorb shocks from the force of other players or simply enforce strength to push opponents away from teammates. This is an advantage in sports because you have more chance of fighting the ball back for your team because your bones are stronger, so you are able to apply more strength onto the running, colliding and throwing the ball. This increases the chances of winning because if your team is able to keep possession of the ball, it is more likely to score.
The joints in our bodies stimulate the secretion of Synovial fluid when the joints undertake movement. With regular exercise, the synovial fluid becomes less viscous (thicker) because the movement at our joints has been increased.
Continuous Training such as long distance running, allows our joints to be provided with and have more synovial fluid. As a result, we are able to move and exercise further with greater force.
Swimmers will also benefit from the increased production of synovial fluid. Because their joints will move easier, more and with greater force, it will allow them to swim faster and quicker through the resistance of the water. This is because they synovial fluid is less viscous, so their joints can undertake more movement and exercise, and also at a greater force. This increases the chances of winning as the synovial fluid becomes less thick, so some swimmers may swim faster than others depending on their training.
Minute Ventilation is the volume of air that is inhaled, and exhaled in the space of one minute. Minute Ventilation is dependent on an individuals breathing rate and tidal volume. This value of Minute ventilation will increase as a result of Long-term exercises and sports due to an increased strength in our respiratory muscles. Our bodies also become better at removing Carbon Dioxide from the body.
Long-term and continuous training enhances the increase in Minute Ventilation, such as 1500M running, Swimming and Weightlifting.
An increase in Minute Ventilation is an advantage in Badminton. In this sport, athletes must cover the whole of the court. Otherwise, their opponents will score easily and they will lose, To prevent this, the athlete must breathe a lot of oxygen in a space of each minute. This will keep their working muscles such as biceps and quadriceps supplied with nutrients and oxygen through the blood. This allows the contraction of the muscle and the movement in general. This is an advantage because it allows the athlete to cover and run around the whole court, preventing the opponent from scoring because of your good positioning. You are also able to hit the shuttlecock harder and faster. This increases the chances of winning.
The respiratory muscles in our body consists of a diaphragm and intercostal muscles. These muscles will eventually increase in strength if an individual participates in continuous, long-term exercises or sports. When these muscles become stronger in terms of strength, it allows the human body the expansion of chest cavity. As a result, we can breathe more air in a certain period of time.
This allows our bodies to intake and to be provided with more oxygen to the working muscles. Our body also becomes more efficient in terms of breathing out more carbon-dioxide.
Long-term and continuous exercises such as long distance running, 1500M, swimming 200M and cycling will help improve the strength of your respiratory muscles.
An increase in strength of the respiratory muscles is an advantage in Shot put. If athletes are able to breathe in more air in a certain period of time, they will provide more energy and oxygen for the working muscles, such as biceps and triceps. This will allow the muscles to contract more, allowing the athlete to push the shot put away from their arm. This is an advantage because if the biceps and triceps are provided with more oxygen, they will be able to push the shot put as far as they can because their muscles are able to contract more frequently. This will allow them to improve their results and throw further than other athletes. This increases the chances of winning.
An increase in oxygen diffusion rate is caused by the result of long term exercise that is undertaken by an individual. This allows the working muscles to be provided with a more efficient delivery of oxygen which can be diffused to the working muscles. The Alveoli and the capillaries are the parts of the body where diffusion takes place. As a result, our bodies have a greater ability to remove and get rid of Carbon Dioxide more efficiently.
Long term and continuous training will enhance an increase in oxygen diffusion rate, such as long and continuous distance running and swimming.
Runners must have a greater and a more efficient of oxygen supply to their working muscles such as quadriceps and gastrocnemius. This way, these muscles are provided with higher levels of nutrients, energy and oxygen because the supply of blood is more efficient. Also, our body becomes more efficient at clearing away carbon dioxide from our bodies so we are able to perform at our maximal level because our body adapts to these changes. This way, athletes are able to overtake their opponents in either 1500M race or a Marathon because their muscles are able to contract more due to the increased diffusion rate of Oxygen. This increases the chances of overtaking your opponents and winning the race.