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Types of Chemical Reactions

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Nadja Flowers

on 14 April 2014

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Transcript of Types of Chemical Reactions

Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions:
Section 11.2 "Types of Chemical Reactions"

1. Combination Reactions
Here is an example of a combination reaction:
Ignited magnesium ribbon reacts with oxygen to produce magnesium oxide (a white solid).
A combination reaction is a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance.

2. Decomposition Reactions
A decomposition reaction is a chemical change in which a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler products.

3. Single-Replacement Reactions
A single-replacement reaction is a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound.

You can identify a single-replacement reaction by noting that both the
reactants and the products consist
of an element and a compound.


4. Double-Replacement Reactions
A double-replacement reaction, involves an exchange of positive ions between two compounds.

They generally take place in aqueous solution and often produce a precipitate, a gas, or a molecular compound such as water.
Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions
The number of elements and/or compounds reacting is a good indicator of possible reaction type and thus possible products.
The 5 general types of chemical reactions:
1. Combination Reactions
2. Decomposition Reactions
3. Single-Replacement Reactions
4. Double- Replacement Reactions
5. Combustion Reactions

Mercury(II) oxide is heated and decomposes to mercury and oxygen.
Decomposition reactions involve only ONE reactant but TWO or MORE products.
In a combination reaction are always TWO or MORE reactants to produce ONE product.
Notice that both the reactants and the products consist of an element and a compound.
Remember that you always have an element and a compound for both your reactants and products.
Definition:
A precipitate is a solid that settles out of a liquid mixture.
The positive ions, K+ and Ba2+ switch places.
Notice that two people moved and; therefore,
two new compounds have been created
5. Combustion Reactions
A combustion reaction is a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light.

Oxygen is always a reactant.

If a complete combustion reaction takes place then water and carbon dioxide
are the products.

This is an example of a complete combustion.
Oxygen is a reactant and
carbon dioxide and water are the products.
A combustion reaction will always have oxygen as a reactant. If it is a complete combustion reaction then oxygen and carbon dioxide will always be the products.
In a
combination
reaction,
two or more reactants
(elements or compounds) combine to form
a single product.
In a
decomposition
reaction, a
single
compound is the
reactant
;
two or more
substances are the
products
.
An
element
and a
compound
are the
reactants
in a
single-replacement reaction
. A different
element
and a new
compound
are the
products
.
In a
double-replacement reaction
, two ionic compounds are the reactants; two new compounds are the products.
Positive ions switch places.
The
reactants
in a
combustion
reaction are
oxygen
and usually a hydrocarbon. The
products
of most combustion reactions are
carbon dioxide
and
water
.

Summary
No matter what type of chemical reaction you encounter,
you always need to make sure that you have
the
same number of atoms for your reactants

and the
same number of atoms for your products.

Remember
atoms cannot be created nor destroyed
from section 11.1 "Describing Chemical Reactions."
Sources
http://chemistry.phillipmartin.info/chemistry_reactions.htm
Image from animation 1
Images from animations 3, 9, 13, and 16
Chemistry book by Prentice Hall Chemistry written by
Wilbraham, Staley, Matta, and Waterman (2009).
Image from animation 19
http://vchemistry.blogspot.com/p/career-options.html
Image from animation 17
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combustion
Image from animation 14
http://www.teachinghighschoolchemistry.com/1/post/2014/01/double-replacement-reactions.html
Images from animations 4, 7 and 10
http://chemistrymysteries.blogspot.com/2012_01_01_archive.html
Youtube video from animation 6
www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVbBaLswAO8
Full transcript