Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

THEORIES OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

No description
by

Rosy Nuñez

on 22 January 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of THEORIES OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

THEORIES OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
THE ACCULTURATION MODEL
"Process of becoming adapted to a new culture"
ACCOMMODATION THEORY
MONITOR MODEL
Goal of a Theory of Second Language Acquistion(SLA):

Description
: What, How, When is it acquired?

Explanation
: Why is it acquired?
- Cognitive Processes: Input-Output
- Initiating Factors: Motivation

ACCULTURATION:


Social Distance:


Psychological Distance
- As a member of a social group
- Learning situation is "good or bad"
Example:
The L2 group´s culture is congruent
with that of the target language group.
- Affective factors as an individual:
-Language shock
-Culture shock
-Motivation
Schumman says:


When
Social
and
/or
Psychological
distances
are great
Pidginization

(No+ ´V´ Negatives
uninverted interrogatives, absence of possessive etc.)
If
pidginization
persists
Learner
Fossilizes
Schumann distinguishes three broad functions of language:

-Communicative Function
-Integrative Function
-Expressive Function
The Nativization Model
- Anderson builds on Schumann´s Acculturation Model
- Cognitive Dimension ---- Learning Processes
Anderson sees SLA as:
Nativization
Assimilation
(Learner build hypothesis based on the knowledge he possess)
----- Internal Norm
Denativization
Accomodation
Learner adjust his internalized system to fit the input
----External Norm
The Accommodation Theory:
- Derives from the research of Giles
- He concerned to investigate how intergroup uses of language reflect basic social and psychological attitudes.
Ingroup
: groups in which a person feels he or she belongs
Outgroup
: Groups in which a person feels he or she does not belong.
Giles agrees that
motivation
is primary determinant of L2 proficiency
Motivation
is governed by a number of key variables:
-
Identification of the individual learner with his ethnic group.

- Inter-ethnic comparison

- Perception of ethno-linguistic vitality

- Identification with other ingroup social categories
Giles distinguishes 2 types of change which occur in the L2 speaker´s use:
Upward convergence:
Downward divergence:
When speakers interact , they adjust their speech, and other gestures to accommodate others
DISCOURSE THEORY
Communication is treated as the matrix of linguistic knowledge
Discourse Theory
-Language development should be considered in terms of how the learner discovers the meaning potential of language by participating in communication.
- It can be learnt through learning to communicate.
Principles
of the Discourse Theory proposed by Hatch:
1.- SLA follows a "natural route"
2.- Native speakers adjust their speech
in order to negotiate meaning with
non-native speakers.
3.- Natural route is the result of learning how to hold conversations
5.- The affective filter hypothesis
- Affective factors

-Motivation, self-confidence, or anxiety state.

-
Filter
Controls how much input the learner comes into contact with, and how much input is converted into intake.
1.- Acquisition learning hypothesis
The process of internalizing new L2 Knowledge, to storing this knowledge and use it in actual performance.
Acquisition
: subconscious process when participating in natural communication(picking up words, games, movies)
Learning:
conscious study of the formal properties of the language(grammar rules)
Acquired: automatic processing---initiating comprehension---production of utterances.
Learnt : for controlled processing and only use by the monitor.
2.- Natural order hypothesis
Grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order

When learner is engaged in natural communication, he will manifest the standard order.
But when the task requires or permits the use of metalinguistic knowledge, a different order will emerge
3.- Monitor hypothesis
The device that learners use to edit their language performance. It utilizes learnt knowledge by acting up and modifying utterances generated from acquired knowledge.
3 conditions to use monitor:

a) Time
b) Focus on form and meaning
c) User must know the rule
4.- The input Hypothesis
Acquisition takes place as a result of the learner having understood input that is a little beyond the current level of his competence
(the i + 1 level)
Input that is comprehensible to the learner will automatically be at the right level.
Example: Learner with high motivation and self-confidence and low anxiety-----has low filters.
THE VARIABLE COMPETENCE MODEL
The Variable Competence Model -- proposed by Ellis
2 Distinctions
Process of Language
Product of Language
- Unplanned Discourse
(lack of preparation)
- Planned Discourse

(it is prepared)
Linguistic Knowledge
(rules)
Use of this language
(procedures)
Competence
Capacity
Widdowson
The variability of the learner´s rule system with reference to
Bialystok´s dual distinction is:

-
Automatic
: can be retrieved easily and quickly
-
Non-Automatic:
that takes time and effort to retrive.
1.- Relative access that the learner has to L2 Knowledge
2.- Learner possesses a propositional mental representation----which makes clear the structure of the knowledge
The Variable Competence Mode of SLA attempts to account for:

1.- The variability of language-learner language.
2.- The external and internal processes responsible for SLA

- Analytic, Unanalytic:
is
the general form in which we know most things-----we are usually not aware of the way in which our knowledge is structured.
The learner possesses a capacity for language use which consist of :
Primary processes
Discourse
Cognitive
Simplify the semantic structure of a message
Construct an underlying conceptual structure of a message
Example: Semantic simplification(omission
of elements from a proposition in production)
Secondary processes
Discourse
Cognitive
Simplify the semantic structure of a message
Construct an underlying conceptual structure of a message
Example: Monitoring(the editing of language performance)
THE UNIVERSAL HYPOTHESIS
- Linguistic properties of the target language and the learner´s first language---- may influence the course of development.
- SLA--- in terms of an independent language faculty
The value of the Universal Hypothesis for SLA theory is twofold:

1.- It focuses attention on the nature of the target language

2.- it provides a subtle and persuasive reconsideration of transfer as an important factor in SLA.

NEUROFUNCTIONAL THEORY
Neurolinguistic research
- Attempts to characterize the neurolinguistic information processing systems responsible for the development and use of language.
- There is a connection between language function an the neural anatomy
Neurofunctional Theory
The right Hemisphere(know as Wernick´s and Broca´s areas)
The left hemisphere
- Both associated with comprehension and production of language
- Focus on 1)age differences, 2) formulaic speech, 3) fossilization, 4)pattern practice in classroom
Right Hemisphere:
- Storing and processing formulaic speech
- Be involved in pattern practice in classroom SLA.
-Act as initial staging mechanism for handling patterns---re-examined later in left hemisphere
- Pattern practice and minimal pair drills may utilize right hemisphere abilities in adult learner.
Left Hemisphere
- Creative language use, including syntactic and semantic processing and motor operations involved in speaking and writing

- If Left Hemisphere does not take place--the learner will not be able to utilize language forms.----constructions of spontaneous, creative speech.
Lamendella´s Neurofunctional Theory
Two basis types of language acquisition:
1.- Primary Language Acquisition------ 2 to 5 years
2.- Secondary Language Acquisition
a) foreign language learning
b) second language acquisition.
Two systems for language functioning:

1.- The communication hierarchy---- has responsibility for language and interpersonal

2.- The cognitive hierarchy-----controls a variety
of cognitive information processing.
The Monitor Model Consists of 5 hyphotheses
"Spontaneous
Communication"
Full transcript