Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Critical Thinking

No description

Brad Howard

on 27 September 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Critical Thinking

(Starr, 2004, p. 3).
critical thinking
“is habitually inquisitive, well-informed, trustful of reason, open-minded, flexible, fair-minded in evaluation, honest in facing personal biases, prudent in making judgments, willing to reconsider, clear about issues, orderly in complex matters, diligent in seeking relevant information, reasonable in the selection of criteria, focused in inquiry, and persistent in seeking results which are as precise as the subject and the circumstances of inquiry permit” (p. 3).
the ideal critical thinker
“Dogmatism is the degree to which people are unable to perceive or evaluate information independent of their prior attitudes, beliefs, and needs, the source of the information, and its context” (Becker & Roberts, 1992, p. 47).
Critical thinking is impaired by personal dogmatism.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
According to Facione (1990), "Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of Educational Assessment and Instruction" "critical thinking is purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based” (p. 3).
Thinking outside the box
"is the process of defining a fuzzy concept so as to make the theoretical concept clearly distinguishable or measurable, and to understand it in terms of empirical observations. In a wider sense, it refers to the process of specifying the extension of a concept—describing what is and is not a part of that concept."
According to Charles W. Mueller, "Describing social phenomena and testing hypotheses require that concept(s) be operationalized. Operationalization moves the researcher from the abstract level to the empirical level, where variables rather than concepts are the focus. It refers to the operations or procedures needed to measure the concept(s). Measurement is the process by which numerals (or some other labels) are attached to levels or characteristics of the variables" (Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods).
clear about issues
orderly in complex matters
reasonable in the selection of criteria
Although concepts may be abstract, fuzzy words, the operational definition of a concept should be clear and unambiguous.
The presence of the variables proves the presence of the abstract concept. If there is legitimacy, authority, neutrality and uniformity, then there is a free and fair judiciary.
Operational definitions of variables establish how the presence of a variable will be measured. For example, legitimacy will be measured by the legal code and public opinion.
You might find it easier to identify variables of abstract concepts if you establish distinctions between opposing concepts:
“Visualization is, first and foremost, an act of cognition" (Miller 1984).
"It is a human ability to develop mental images, often of relationships that have no visible form” (MacEachren & Ganter, 1990, p. 66).
According to West, "Albert Einstein once said that all of his most important and productive thinking was done by playing with images in his imagination. Only in a secondary stage did he translate — with great effort, he says — these images into the language of words and mathematics that could be understood by others."
"the capacity of some persons to produce intended and foreseen effects on others" (Wrong, 1995).
What is Power?
Thinking critically about Power
defines power as
"the capacity of some persons to produce intended and foreseen effects on others" (Wrong, 1995).
What is power?
Power and liberty
"Negative liberty is the absence of obstacles, barriers or constraints. One has negative liberty to the extent that actions are available to one in this negative sense. Positive liberty is the possibility of acting — or the fact of acting — in such a way as to take control of one's life and realize one's fundamental purposes. While negative liberty is usually attributed to individual agents, positive liberty is sometimes attributed to collectivities, or to individuals considered primarily as members of given collectivities."
What is policy?
"it is about what governments choose to do or not do" (Public Policy: Why Ethics Matters, ed. J. Boston, A. Bradstock, D. L. Eng
According to McChesney, "The policies, structures, subsidies, and institutions that are created to control, direct, and regulate the media will be responsible for the logic and nature of the media system."
“The crucial tension," McChesney says, "lies between the role of the media as profit maximizing commercial organizations and the need for media to provide the basis for informed self-government” (p. 17).
McChesney suggests, "the media system has been set up to serve the interests of those who make the policies behind closed doors -- large profit-driven media corporations -- while the broad and vital interests of the population have been largely neglected. This system has contributed to a political crisis of the highest magnitude and unless it is confronted directly will severely limit our ability to make progress on any of the other major social and political problems that face the nation. On balance, the media system has become -- ironically, in view of the freedom of the press clause in the First Amendment -- a significantly antidemocratic force. It is a political problem that requires a political solution."
Deregulation and Negative Liberty
“we can regulate social behavior through four general paths:
Architecture, and
Cultural norms.”
“none can lay claim to being the natural or ‘default’ position” (p. 19).
"Our research reveals that in a commercial environment, news organizations foreground
rationalization (cutting journalists’ jobs) and marketization (commodifying all available
space) at the expense of ideal democratic objectives in a way that has led to the homogenization of content" (Fenton 2010).
News as Commodity
"The concern that news media are failing to deliver a high-quality news service is not new (Franklin 2006; Franklin and Murphy 1998) and is not simply a consequence of the online environment. Rather, it is linked more fundamentally to the practices of neoliberalism – the increasing marketization of news and the ruthless logic of an economic system that demands ever-increasing profit margins resulting in fewer journalists doing more work, undermining the provision of news in the public interest."
Fenton's conclusion: "Freedom of the press has always been associated with the ability of news journalists to do their job free from interference from government. Clearly this is crucial for independent news production. But freedom should also mean having the freedom to act in the public interest and not be constantly beholden to commercial gain; to be free from the shackles of corporatization. Freedom of news media and news journalism should be founded on the core service of news as a profession of integrity, transparency and accountability rooted in a relationship with democracy where profit is not the only principle."
Democracy versus Profit
According to McChesney, “The dominant media firms enjoy the power to control news coverage of debates over media policies; this is a power they have used shamelessly to trivialize, marginalize, and distort opposition to the status quo” (p. 48).
Critical thinking and power
Full transcript