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Transcript of science
Before We Begin...
A star which is has no more than 1.4 solar masses.
Jungyun Doh, Emma Lee, Chaeyeon Min, Kyungmin Lee
an interstellar cloud in outer space that is made up of dust, hydrogen and helium gas.
Formed when portions of the interstellar medium collapse and clump together by the gravitational attraction of the particles that comprise them. When more mass clump together, the greater the gravitational attraction will be to other bodies and particles in their vicinity.
Its core is not yet hot enough to fusion.
It is surrounded by dust, which blocks the light that they emit, so they are difficult to observe in the visible spectrum.
A collection of gas, considered as the first phase of the star's life.
The disk is formed by being flattened from the rotation
The magnetic field also generates a strong protostellar wind, which is an outward flow of particles into space.
Many protostars create jet-like streams of gas along its rotating axis.
When its core gets high enough(10 million K) and fusion starts, that is when the star is finally born.
Type II Supernova
A star which is larger than
10 solar masses
during its regular main sequence
The smaller a star the longer its life
Clusters inside giant molecular clouds of gas and dust
Heat up and create a hot sphere of gas called a protostar
Change hydrogen to helium at its core
Enters main sequence star
Main sequence star starts run out of energy, it expands
Core will cool and become a white dwarf
Above 10 soar masses
Radii from 30 to 500, or even in 1000 solar radii.
The process is
same as becoming red giants
(formed when a star runs out of hydrogen fuel to turn into helium in core -> begins collapsing -> outer shells of hydrogen around the core heats itself to begin the next fusion.)
A star which is heavier than 1.4 solar masses but lighter than about 3-4 solar masses
Because of its size, usual time the star stays at this stage is just a
few hundred thousand years
, maybe up to a million.
Within this period, the core of the red supergiant continues to
fuse heavier and heavier elements until Iron
, the stops because fusing iron actually requires more energy than it releases.
200 to 800 times the size of the Sun.
Time very short, transitionary phase
(from main sequence to red supergiant phase, or from red to blue)
(incredibly rare and sensitive)
hydrogen continues to be fused into helium
burns at extreme hot temperature; very luminous compared to sun but nlast long
Can have more than 20 times the mass of the Sun.
Surface temp.: 20,000-50,000 Kelvin.
Only observed in
young cosmic structures
such as open clusters, the arms of spiral galaxies, and in irregular galaxies.
The star cannot hold its core with remaining gravitational force and collapses -> explodes
When all nuclear fuels are gone...
The type which happens at the end of a
city-size stellar objects with a mass about 1.4 times the sun
Lets out all kinds of matters from red giant phase out to space -> delivered to some place else!
All the mass inside a 20-km diameter.
Its gravity 2 billion times stronger than Earth's one
Able to bend radiation from the star (gravitational lensing), able to see some of the back side of the star.
Can spin as fast as 43,000 times per minute, but slowing over time.
Jets of materials nearly fast as light.
Appears to be flashing on and off as the beam passes the Earth
Huge, huge mass of a star compacted into a tiny, tiny space.
Its gravity gets too immense that nothing, even light, cannot escape.
An example of black hole: a star ten times bigger than the sun complacted into a sphere diameter about New York City.
Detected by radiation that is emitted as dust and gas are drawn into the dense something.
the single point in space-time where the mass of the black hole is concentrated.
Boundary around the mouth of the black hole.
Objects completely unable to leave after crossing here.