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Five Themes of Geography

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Emma Santelmann

on 6 September 2012

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Transcript of Five Themes of Geography

Serbia The Five Themes of Geography By Emma Santelmann Serbia and its Immediate Surroundings N S E W Map Source: CIA World Factbook Serbia in Europe Location N E W S Map Source: CIA World Factbook Orange: Serbia
Dark Grey: Europe
Light Grey: Other Continents White: Serbia
Beige: Other Countries
Blue: Rivers/Bodies of Water Belgrade Absolute Location: 44 49'14" North
20 27'44" East
Altitude of 116,75 m Relative Location:
Lies at the point where the Sava and Danube rivers meet, in central-northern Serbia
On the slope between two alluvial plains
Just south of the edge of the province of Vojvodina Important Facts:
Called the "Gate of the Balkans" or the "Door to Central Europe" because of its location
Intersection of major roads between Eastern and Western Europe
A key sailing port because of the Danube, which connects to the Black Sea, North Sea, and Atlantic Ocean via canals
One of the oldest cities in Europe, area has been inhabited for up to 7,000 years
Is its own district within Serbia and produces 30% of Serbia's GDP Place Physical Characteristics Climate:
Cold winters and hot, humid summers in the north
Elsewhere, Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snow and hot, dry summers)
Average annual temperature of 11-12 C
Average annual rainfall ranges from 540 to 820 mm to 700 to 1000 mm
Annual hours of sunshine range from 1500 to 2200 Flatlands:
Mostly in northern Serbia, in the Province of Vojvodina
To the north of Belgrade is edge of the Pannonian Plain, a remnant of the ancient Pannonian Sea Mountains:
Mostly in the southern and eastern regions
Serbia's highest mountain is Midzor, (2,169 meters) on the border between Serbia and Bulgaria Rivers:
Belong to basins of the Black, Adriatic, Aegean Seas
The Danube, Sava, and Tisa are navigable
Danube is the longest, running 588 km (out of its 2,857 km course) in Serbia
The city of Belgrade includes 200 km of riverbanks and 16 river islands Wildlife:
Over 360 bird species have been identified in Serbia, five of which are globally endangered
Some common birds: Rock Pigeon, Eurasian Collared-dove, Common Kestrel, Barn Owl, White-tailed Eagle
27.3% of Serbia is covered in forest Human Characteristics Languages Spoken:
Serbian: 88.3%
Hungarian: 3.8%
Bosniak: 1.8%
Romany (Gypsy): 1.1%
other: 4.1%
unknown: .9% Religious Distribution:
Serbian Orthodox: 85%
Catholic: 5.5%
Protestant: 1.1%
Muslim: 3.2%
unspecified: 2.6%
other/unknown/atheist: 2.6% Urbanization:
56% of population is urban
projected to increase by .6% annually
Belgrade is the largest city with a population of 1.115 million Land Usage (Agriculture):
Serbia has 789 agricultural companies/cooperatives and 778,891 registered family farms
70% of Serbia's land is used for farming of some sort; 65.2% of this land is arable
Crops account for 68.4% of agricultural production, livestock for 31.6% Minorities:
Over 1.135 million members of minorities live in Serbia (excluding Kosovo)
Minority groups include Bunjevci, Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Hungarians, Roma, Romanians, Ruthenes, Slovaks, Ukrainians and Croats
Other than Serbs, there are 37 different ethnicities living in Serbia What makes it unique? The majority of the people in Serbia are Serbs and speak Serbian, which uses the Cyrillic script.
However, Serbia is very diverse for its small size, with many other ethnic groups and languages.
The Serbian Orthodox Church has been autonomous since 1219 and is a key part of Serbian national identity.
Serbia is characterized by a transitional political state. The time between 1988-2000 was especially turbulent because of the Yugoslav and Kosovo Wars, and because of the rule of Slobodan Milošević.
Serbia's first democratic government was formed in 2001 and in 2006 it became independent of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro (remnant of Yugoslavia). Comparison to the United States: United States:
Land area: 9,826,675 sq km
Renewable water resources: 3,069 cu km
Most common religion: Protestant (51.3%)
Urbanization: 82%
Life expectancy: 78.49 years
Literacy: 99%
Highest point: Mount McKinley (6,194 m) Serbia:
Land area: 77,474 sq km (slightly smaller than South Carolina)
Renewable water resources: 208.5 cu km (includes Kosovo)
Most common religion: Serbian Orthodox (85%)
Urbanization: 56%
Life expectancy: 74.56 years
Literacy: 97.9%
Highest point: Midzor (2,169 m) Human-Environment Interaction Dependence Agriculture:
Serbia's agricultural production is largely dependent on its fertile northern plains in Vojvodina, in the Pannonian Basin
The soil conditions and moderate climate are favorable for crop production
70% of yield from Vojvodina is cereal grains, 20% industrial herbs, 10% other crops
Irrigation networks have further improved the land Mining:
Mining is an important part of the Serbian economy
Coal mined in Serbia provides 65% of its electric power
Copper and other metals are also mined Rivers:
In ancient times, the intersection of the Sava and Danube rivers was an ideal location for the city of Belgrade because water supports life
Today, these rivers are used to generate hydroelectric power Modification/Adaptation Ada Ciganlija:
A river island in Belgrade that was turned into a peninsula
It is now a recreational center of Belgrade Artificial Lake:
Dams were built at both ends of Ada Ciganlija in 1967, creating a 4.2 km artificial lake Đerdap (Iron Gate) Power Stations:
Hydroelectric power stations and dams built on the Danube river between the 1960's and 1980's
On the border between Serbia and Romania Urbanization:
56% of Serbia's population is urban
increasing by .6% annually Consequences/Responses Environmental Response to Creation of Artificial Lake at Ada Ciganlija:
Ada Ciganlija has become a central ecological point of Belgrade
The lake combined with the woods of the peninsula create a climate that is more humid and slightly cooler than the rest of the city
The peninsula supports much vegetation and wildlife, including large communities of aquatic birds Consequences of the Đerdap (Iron Gate) Power Stations/Dams:
Waters rose significantly around the dams, swallowing up numerous settlements including the island of Ada Kaleh
Thousands of people were permanently displaced
Wildlife of the Iron Gate gorge was disrupted by the building of the dams, though it is now protected by national parks in both Serbia and Romania Consequences of Urbanization:
Air pollution around Belgrade and other large cities has become a concern
Water pollution is being caused by the dumping of industrial wastes into the Sava and Danube
Efforts to combat air and water pollution are ongoing - Belgrade has numerous organizations that monitor air and water quality
Wildlife is also protected in many urban areas
182 types of trees are listed and protected in Belgrade Movement People Lepenski Vir:
This ancient culture settled in the Đerdap (Iron Gate) Gorge between 6500 and 5500 BC Vinča:
This culture settled near modern day Belgrade between 4500 and 3200 BC
Probably chose this location because of the intersecting rivers Iron Age Tribes:
The Moesi, Triballi and Dardani tribes appeared in Serbia between 1000 and 100 BC Slavic Tribes:
Slavic tribes from the Danube Basin settled the Balkan Peninsula in the sixth century
Around 630 AD, the Slavs captured Singidunum (Belgrade)
A Serbian Empire first formed in the mid 1300's Communication of Ideas Post:
The Serbian Postal Service is in the process of introducing a new system of unique postcodes called PAK (poštanski adresni kod) Internet:
The domain ".rs" has replaced the domain ".yu" because of the break up of Yugoslavia
Free wireless internet can be accessed at many internet cafes in Belgrade and other cities Telekom Srbija:
Founded in 1997
Currently the primary provider of cable, internet, mobile phone service, and land line telephone service (other providers do exist) Mobile Phones:
Serbia has three mobile service providers and seven mobile phone networks False Reports by Government Media:
during the rule of Slobodan Milošević, (beginning in 1988) large discrepancies existed between the reports of the government run TV Belgrade and other media sources
TV Belgrade exaggerated the numbers of people at rallys held by Slobodan Milošević and the Serbian Socialist Party, while under-representing the numbers of people at protests by students and democratic opposition groups Transportation of Goods Waterways:
Rivers, especially the fully navigable Danube, Sava, and Tisa, are crucial to transportation of goods both in Serbia and in Europe
Canals, including the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, link Serbia (through Belgrade) to the Black and North Seas
Serbia's rivers put it at the center of an important sailing/trading route Roads and Railways:
Serbia is called the "crossroads of Europe" because of the international roads and railways which pass through it, leading to Western Europe, Asia Minor, and the Middle East
The Belgrade-Bar railway leads to Montenegro and the Adriatic Sea Morava Valley:
A river valley that begins in the south of Vojvodina
The Great Morava intersects the Danube, forming a connection between the north and south of the Balkan Peninsula
Creates primary travel routes as its tributaries cut through the mounatainous south of Serbia Regions Political Yugoslavia:
Created after WWI and existed in some form until the early 1990's
In the early 1990's, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia declared independence, leaving only Serbia and Montenegro
In 2003, named was changed to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, and in 2006, Serbia became independent Political Regions of Serbia:
According to the government of Serbia, Serbia is divided into these five regions: Belgrade region, Vojvodina region, Sumadija and western Serbia region, eastern and southern Serbia region, and Kosovo-Metohija region
The city of Belgrade is its own separate territorial unit
According to the Serbian government, Serbia has two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina and Kosovo-Metohija
In addition to these broad regions, Serbia is divided into 29 administrative areas, 23 cities, 28 urban municipalities, 150 municipalities, 6,158 villages and 195 urban settlements Vojvodina:
In the north of Serbia, occupies 24.4% of Serbia's land area
84% of Vojvodina is arable land
Most important city of this province is Novi Sad Kosovo:
In 2008, this province declared independence from Serbia
Serbia does not recognize this and considers it an autonomous province
The ethnic majority in Kosovo is Albanian Land Mountain Ranges:
There are many mountain ranges in the southern parts of Serbia, including the Balkan Mountains, the Carpathian Mountains, the Dinaric Alps, and the Rhodope Mountains Pannonian Plain/Basin:
Remnant of an ancient sea, and thus is made up of flat, fertile land with only 6.8% forest coverage
The province of Vojvodina is located here
The Danube, Sava, and Tisa cut Vojvodina into three regions: Banat, Backa, and Srem River Valleys:
Various river valleys, including the Morava, Nišava, and Ibra, cut through the mountains of Southern Serbia and create travel routes
The Morava has three branches - the South and West Moravas come together to form the Great Morava Cultural Many different ethnic groups reside in the area of Serbia/ Former Yugoslavia
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