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Unit 3 Timeline
Transcript of Unit 3 Timeline
Fazila Amedi and Rawan Jadayel
Friday January 10th, 2013
Relationship with the
In this timeline, we will explore the relationship between the Canada and the United States of America and the complexity of their relationship. During the 1950's and 1960's the two allies faced great triumphs as well as tense situations. However, the most important thing is that at the end of the day, the similar ideals that the countries had kept them together and impacted the decisions that they made to provide an overall result.
The end of the Second World War was marked by the dropping of atomic bombs, created by the United States, dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Japan. After this, the United States of America and the Soviet Union took scientists who had been working on nuclear development to further develop nuclear weapons. The nuclear arms race was a type of competition that these two countries had against each other to see who could create the most nuclear weapons and was a main feature of the Cold War. Canada became America's ally in this war but refused to create any of its own nuclear weapons, though many Canadian scientists made contributions to nuclear weapons development by participating in projects financed or based in the United States.
Despite Canada not taking on a leadership role in developing nuclear weapons, the Canadian economy was still impacted because of it. There was a growth in mining that was related directly to military production. Uranium was mined for atomic bombs and warheads, and titanium and aluminum was mined for aircraft and missiles. Also, the arms race contributed to promoting an interest in nuclear energy.
And so, in 1952, Canada created the AECL (Atomic Energy of Canadian Limited) to focus on using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes such as to treat cancer by using radiation treatment and creating nuclear reactors for energy production. Soon, the organization took over the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, on the Ottawa River, and a second center was built in 1962 and became known as the Nuclear Research Establishment in Northern Manitoba.
This dedication for using nuclear weapons for peaceful purposes was not done in vain-one of the biggest achievements for the AECL was the development of the CANDU (Canadian deuterium uranium reactor) nuclear reactor. It was a safe and efficient reactor for the production of electricity and was exported around the world. Also, the creation of the cobalt bomb can be accredited to Canadian physicist Dr. Harold Johns, who was a pioneer in linking nuclear physics and medicine. The cobalt bomb revolutionized cancer therapy around the world.
Canada may have supported America in the Cold War, but this was more so out of their safety than anything else for Canadians feared the thought of a nuclear attack, going to the extents of practicing air raid drills and building underground bomb shelters. They lived their daily lives in fear and hoped that the Cold War would end soon.
The mushroom cloud that was the aftermath of the atom bomb thrown on Nagasaki
Nikita Khrushchev vs.President John F. Kennedy
Canada was fully prepared to support the United States of America against Communism. It was even ready to send an army brigade to be sent to Germany and an air force division to be stationed in France; sending troops abroad during peacetime was a Canadian first. It showed how seriously its role was taken to be a part of NATO.
Canada’s minister of external affairs, Louis St. Laurent, outlined the philosophy that Canada used for its foreign policy throughout the Cold War. He believed that the United Nations was not powerful or united enough to be able to keep the spread of Communism intact, but that the United States of America, did. For this reason, he believed that Canadian foreign policy should be tied with American foreign policy; it was called the Truman Doctrine, named after President Truman, and was the belief that communism should be contained and not spread). Therefore, he proposed an organization consisting of Western nations that would protect the western part of the world against Communist aggression. One year later, his suggestion was taken into consideration and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was created. It was intended to be a defensive alliance for the purpose of discouraging the expansion of the Soviet into Western Europe. The organization consisted of the United States of America, Canada, France and Britain as its founding members. It was decided that an attack on one of them would be considered an attack on all of them.
Africville was situated in Halifax, Nova Scotia and contained a fluctuating low population of 50 residents that dramatically spiked in 1749. Africville was known as the oldest black settlement in Canada and was never officially established. From the year 1749 onwards, several problems arose. The comprehension of such growth was justified by the movement of the Black Refugees were fleeing the United States. This occurred under the supervision of the British as they needed aid in clearing and farming that region. Therefore, this ultimately meant that this was a heavily concentrated black community. Moreover, Africville’s origin was straightened out by an elderly woman who explained that it was not named in rationale of a great percentage originating from Africa. This was false but was defined as a region where the “Colour folks lived” and was then accepted as such.
However, in the early years of the 1950’s, the city was on the outset of the idea of bulldozing Africville and having its residents relocated. This was because the city council was rivaling the region as it was known as a slum and an eyesore. In contrast, the residents of Africville were doing everything in their power to counter their decisions in the plan of bulldozing the region but renovating it instead, Despite all the citizens efforts, the city council stuck with their previous plan of bulldozing the region. Moreover, this left the citizens shelterless and needing to find a home pronto.
Igor Gouzenko reveals the Soviet Union's Plans
Igor Gouzenko was a cipher clerk working at the Soviet Embassy located in Ottawa, Ontario . His actions strongly impacted the mistrust that Canada and its government had towards Communism.
The Cold War was between Capitalist countries and Communist countries and consisted of no actual fighting, but was actually a war fought with words and propaganda. It was fought very sneakily, meaning that it caused people to be influenced without them knowing so. The Soviet Union proved to be quite good at this as it not only ran one, but two spy rings in Canada without any officials coming to know about it.
And they would have never found about it, had it not been for Igor Gouzenko who stole documents from the embassies and showed them to Canadian authorities (the RCMP and then, when that didn't work, the newspapers), in hope of seeking asylum in Canada. Gouzenko desperately need someone to believe him because he did not want to return back to the Soviet Union where the politics of the country were spreading fear in the country. Through his connections at the Embassy, he was aware of the misdoings that took place in Russia from the gulags to the fact that many people were starved, frozen or worked to death for speaking out about the government. Why would he leave Ottawa, which was peaceful, for a dreadful place such as that?
Fortunately, after his house was attacked by thugs sent from the Embassy (they’d found out about him stealing the documents), the RCMP, who had been monitoring Gouzenko, took him in for questioning. They had not wanted to believe him beforehand because it would have caused two main problems for Canada:
1. The Canadian police force would look bad for not realizing that two Russian spy rings had been operating in Canada, before.
2. Canada did not want to risk its alliance that it had created with the Soviet Union.
This event eventually led to the conflict known as the Cold War. Canadians may not have been planning to arise in conflict against the Soviet Union, but they had the support of their long time ally, the United States of America to achieve a solution that was not World War 3.
It seemed that though Canadians had not agreed with Americans in the times of enslaving black people, there was still discrimination against those of African-American descent in both Canada and the United States because these people were a minority group.
Gouzenko's home in Ottawa on Somerset Drive
Rock and Roll and Paul Anka go hand-in-hand for many Canadian growing up as teengers in the 1950’s and 1960’s as he is one of the musicians who introduced the sounds of Rock and Roll worldwide.
On first note, Paul was born and raised in Ottawa on July 30, 1941. Anka had Greek Orthodox parents t at descended from Lebanon as they owned a restaurant in Ottawa Ontario titled the Locanda. At the age of fourteen was the starting year of his music career as he recorded his first single and was then known as the 1950-1960’s teen idol. Moreover, as from Anka’s first recorded single in 1955, he continued persevering to what was known as his passion. Nevertheless, Anka knew that if he wanted to make the most out of his thriving passion, he needed to make his way to New York City which was numerously stated to to be “...where dreams are made of” in today's world. Ultimately, this was where he started going to auditions and interviews in hope of getting a record deal but adjacent to this, Anka kept on recording his own singles. However, on his journey from traveling from Ottawa to New York City and trying to obtain the hearts of the citizens and managers along the way, his single Diana; recorded in 1957, made him skyrocket into the music industry as it became #1 on the Canadian and United States music charts.
Although the television was available in the late 1940’s, it was very expensive and a novelty: the average television set cost $650 and the average monthly Canadian income was $200. Therefore, there was no Canadian broadcasting attainable and American broadcasting was mainly accessible to those who lived near the Canadian-American border at that time. However, in 1952, the first television service became broadcasted by CBC. It was known that even with the the statistics of the television being expensive and rare in the Canadian households, it would eventually become popular nationwide. Moreover, this thought process was a backbone as CBC first broadcasted their primary television service in the year of 1952. This debut kept on making improvements and building on and to the year of 1955 as it stated that 66% of the Canadian population were using its television service. However, it was not solely the work of Canadians that kept this station alive, it was also that of the United States.
This occurred as the introduction of satellites and cable television arose and a strong demand for American programs was needed parallel to the news broadcast. But a great flaw came adjacent. The Canadians wished to have a connection with the American entertainment programs causing CBC to make American programming available as well. This soon put CBC in high popularity because of its American entertainment and advertising revenues ultimately leaving CBC in no choice of abandoning them. If such an action would have occurred, CBC would have been brought back to their first primary situation when they barely had any ratings, eventually causing them to run out of money for funding.
However, by the 1960’s, a more succinct radio-television commissioned branched out as it was then the backbone. This meant that CBC had something to rely back on if and when problems were occurring. Furthermore, this regulated the desired broadcasting and was established with licensing authority.
In response to NATO, the Communist nations formed their own defensive alliance, which consisted of all the Eastern European Communist countries, save for Yugoslavia. The leader of the organization was the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union and the United States of America were at heads with one another because of their different economic and political backgrounds as well as their ideas towards how Asia and Europe should rebuild contrasted.
(North American Aerospace Command)
NORAD was an organisation brought forth by Canada and the United States in 1957. This was an agreement that both nations needed to work collectively for constructed thorough defense plans and protection principles as the Soviet bomber threat arose.
The trigger for the accumulation of this organisation was the severe growth of Soviet long-range aviation during the late 1940’s. Moreover, the United States and Canada were deliberating the plausible events that could occur by the Soviets in response to their sudden aviation growth. This specifically initiated the discussions of possible future defense line plans as they took account of the issues occurring and could occur. Furthermore, on February 1947, Washington and Ottawa announced the fundamental structure and principles of a future defense system that could pursue the plans. In addition, the year of 1949 was when the Soviets tested an atomic bomb that came in direct U.S and Canadian range. In fact, this was the main event that instantly gathered their defense plans and instantaneous collaboration. With this being said, the early 1950’s were the years the American and Canadian plans made a debut. Particularly, the first cooperation agreement was to conduct a series of radars across North America that would inform the nations of a presence of an aircraft. Furthermore, the Pinetree Line were a series of 33 radar stations that ran across southern Canada.This line would reassure continuous radar signal and control over the interception of such radar lines that ran across the coast in beneficiality of defending both nations. This was completed in 1954 and stood as a major organisation that NORAD took over and ran in the year of its establishment.
A diagram depicting the different defensive precautions taken by Canada and the United States of America
For 20 years after the end of the Second World War, many Canadians became accommodated with prosperity with rising wages, a growing consumer market with a demand for Canadian products and low inflation rates, despite mild economic problems. In 1957, this boom came to a slight standstill as export markets began to decline due to the economies of countries such as West Germany, Japan, Britain and France began to recover. As of 1956, most Western Europe countries had joined the European Common Market (EMC), which was created by the Treaty of Rome; this raised the price of tariffs on Canadian products. The United States of America, one of Canada’s biggest export routes, faced wheat surpluses that drove the price of wheat down, which hurt Canadian farmers. This played into the unemployment rate rising by about seven percent, almost twice the average it had been in the past ten years. Other factors included people migrating from rural areas to the cities and an increasing of women joining the workforce for full time employment.
The Conservative government of John Diefenbaker responded immediately by creating jobs. Diefenbaker created a winter works project, poured more money into the Trans-Canada highway project and talked about opening roads in the North-though the impact of these suggestions were minimal, it showed quick thinking about the effect of the recession on Canadians. James Coyne, the governor of the Bank of Canada intervened, claiming that Canada would have to accept a period of economic recession. Though, Coyne also responded by suggesting the increase of bank interest rates, hoping that it would encourage investors to put their money into Canadian Bonds and accounts. However, Diefenbaker disagreed and quickly dismissed the suggestion.
Along with this problem, Canada also faced the economic problem of an unfavourable balance of trades: Canadians were eagerly purchasing imported goods, but foreign countries were not interested in buying Canadian products. It meant that Canada was paying more to have imported goods than it did to when selling its exported products (this was most likely because of tariffs that were placed on the goods). Therefore, this led the Prime Minister to devalue the Canadian dollar to 92.5 cents for every American dollar in the hopes that it would increase the sales of goods; American and European money now cost more than Canadian, so Canadian exports were cheaper to buy.
For many Canadians, this shook their confidence in the economy and the Conservatives: it was one of many reasons that the Liberal Party won the election in 1963.
A factor that led to the recovering of the Canadian economy, other than the devaluation of the dollar, was the increasing American investment in Canada. Prior to this, however, American investment had made about 60% of all foreign money in Canada before WW2- in 1957, 75% of foreign money investment was American. This was further exercised when 90% of all industries in Canada were owned by American businesses: that too, in key areas such as automobile and petroleum industries. In fact, many big factories in Canada were branch plants- subsidiaries of companies whose headquarters were located in the United States of America. This included companies such as Ford, Chrysler and Dodge: these companies dominated the car industry in Canada.
Obviously, this was a problem because it threatened the control Canadians would have on their economy despite the economic growth that they were experiencing from the investments. Also, there was concern that a lot of the money made in these industries went straight to the United States instead of Canada.
Once again, Prime Minister Diefenbaker stepped up to the plate to take action and protect Canada’s economy. It introduced tax incentives that benefitted Canadian-owned companies specifically and excluded American subsidiaries.Furthermore, Diefenbaker created trading ties with Cuba and Soviet Union to show economic independence from the United States of America.
When Lester B. Person, Diefenbaker’s successor, took over with the Liberal Party government, he expanded on this idea and increased economic nationalism by appointing Walter Gordon as his minister of finance. Gordon came up with various solutions to protect Canada’s economy from outside influence (especially America) by setting up takeover taxes on businesses sold to Americans and legislation to protect Canadian banks and other financial agencies from American takeover.
It showed that although Canada was thriving under the American influence, it was prepared to separate itself from it to be able to o
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis or the Missile Scare occurred in October 1962 and involved the stockpiling of weapons in allied countries, which both the United states of America and the Soviet union did quite frequently. In this particular case, the Soviet Union had placed missiles in Cuba, an ally of the USSR, which was only 140 km from the American coast.
On October 14, 1962, an American U2 spy plane flew overhead Cuba for an altitude pass and took aerial photographs of a missile that was being assembled for installation. Two days later, President John F. Kennedy was notified and soon to come was the biggest confrontation during the Cold War. With missiles and Cuba, many major American and Canadian cities were at risk of an attack. The Soviet Union had placed the missiles in Cuba due to their own reluctance at the number of American missiles in Turkey and Western Europe, which most individuals did not know about until decades later. Therefore, they thought their decision was justified and that it would help even the playing field.
After discussing the issue with counselors and advisers, Kennedy decided that their best option was to establish a naval and aerial brigade to prevent Soviet ships from entering Cuba with missiles- this set many people on edge. They feared the nuclear war could begin at any time now. Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, brought relief to the world when reacting in a rational manner and promising to remove the missiles from Cuba. With this promise set in place, the Americans made a promise of their own that they would not invade Cuba and unbeknownst to most people, take their own nuclear weapons out of Turkey.
In terms of Canada’s relationship with the United States and its involvement in NATO in this event, things became tense between the two countries. Most of America’s allies immediately responded to the crisis at hand and put up armed forces on alert. Diefenbaker, however, was slow to provide support due to the resentment that America had not informed them of the blockade until after it had occurred, unlike the terms discussed in the NORAD agreement. Diefenbaker placed Canadian troops on the line close to the end of the crisis and for this, many Canadians and President Kennedy were furious at his decision.
It comes to show that despite the fact that Canada and America were close allies, disagreements and discontent could occur between them. However, due to the strong ties that they shared, these problems would recover.
After these thirteen days in October, the tension began to die down between the Soviet Union because had this conflict resulted in a nuclear war, the world would have been destroyed. It led to talks between these two powerful figures and in 1968, countries around the world with nuclear power agreed not to help other countries develop these weapons. And by the late 1980’s, the Cold War came to an end with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The Avro Arrow was a supersonic military project created by Canada as an interceptor that was intended be used against the attack from the Soviet Union if they tried to cross into the country through the Poles. It was built by A.V. Roe Canada, originated in Malton. Ontario, Canada’s third largest aircraft manufacturing company. The airplane had the capability to travel a speed that surpassed the speed of light three times and could reach an altitude of 60 000 feet. The first flighting test was held on March 25, 1958; this proved that the Avro Arrow was the most sophisticated airplane in its time. However, there was very little international interest in purchasing it. The United States of America seemed interested, though: in 1958, Canada signed a defence-production sharing agreement with them which stated that Canada would buy American-made Bomarc missiles to defend its skies. Though, these missiles lacked nuclear technology, which many felt made the missiles useless because it would take hundreds of thousands of them to do any damage as oppose to the hundreds it would take to obliterate the Soviet Union if they were equipped with nuclear technology.
But soon, problems arose a year later when Prime Minister Diefenbaker canceled the project. The official reason that he gave for doing so was because the project became really expensive. It was a misuse of taxpayer dollars that could be put to better use elsewhere since the cost of the development of the Avro Arrow had been $400 million.
Eventually, many individuals realized that the project was cancelled due in part to other events that were currently taking place in the world. The aircraft manufacturing company began producing the supersonic airplane on October 4,1957, the same day that the Russians had launched Sputnik, the world’s first human made satellite into space. This feat changed the focus of Cold War weapons from conventional bombers to more atmospheric weapons, such as intercontinental ballistic missiles. Other reasons for Diefenbaker closing down the project included the contentious relationship that he had with the manufacturing president, Crawford Gordon, Jr. and the fact that America no longer became interested in purchasing the airplanes and instead of Diefenbaker haggling as St.Laurent, his predecessor had done, he agreed.
Had the Avro Arrow project survived, it would have had many possibilities for the future. The creators of Canadarm, for instance, were initially members of Avro Canada. They had planned other projects as well consisting of a hovering truck, a flying Saucer (AvroCar) a lunar rover and a camera that could capture a rocket blast, to name a few. Amazingly enough, it also broke four world records when it flew from New York to back, revolutionizing commercial aircraft.
Instead, 13 000 Canadians were laid off and forced to move to the United States to put their engineering/aerospace skills to good use elsewhere. In this case, Canada lost sight of one of the most remarkable achievements of its time to one of its closest allies.
The car industry spiked at an all time high in the 1950’s and 1960’s, creating fierce competitions between car companies. As a result, many small car companies, such as Kaiser, Nash, Packard and Studebaker (American companies) went out of business, causing the laying off of several Canadians who worked as salespeople, dealers and automotive parts manufacturers.
In the year of 1965, Canada began a new economic tie with the United States. Ultimately, this was said and thought out to be a great benefit as both nations would be aided by one another, enhancing and making their economies more stable. What complemented the decision of the tie was the action of Canada’s Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson and United States President Lyndon B. Johnson by signing the Auto Pact; limited free trade agreement. Moreover, this was signed on January 16, 1965 with the addition of developing thousands of jobs for Canadians. However, alongside this valuable action, this agreement meant the elimination of trade tariffs constructing two nations into one overall, immense, car-making country. Furthermore, this meant that the United States would be able to develop larger, more efficient, car corporations nationwide triggering a great selection of cheap cars for Canada. However, to reassure that Canada stayed stable and secure, the agreement affirmed that for every car sold in Canada, one had to be built in replacement.These were all duty-free; no tariffs, but they would be applied immediately if one were to go against the agreement.
In beneficiality for Canada, the cars that would be built in Canada, must have consisted of 60% Canadian content and labour. This put Canada in urgency to find common grounds and build their connections for a great, stable automotive industry. This would mean figuring out techniques/strategies on how to construct and make the parts needed with relation to the governments economic state. This also put in perception that the automotive industry would be employing thousands of Canadians. For both Canada and the United states, there was a win-win situation at hand.
The CRTC (Canadian Radio and Television Commission)was established in the year of 1968 as the main regulator and licensing authority. This meant that it had total control in making decisions in account and regards to CBC and other Canadian stations and program in how they would progress forward. Furthermore, a policy the CRTC had control over the full decisions of putting in circulation or not, was the Broadcasting Act. The CRCT were the only corporation possible in passing the Broadcasting Act and was later passed in the same year as the establishment. Moreover, this deposited a greater value in the commission as they were then in power of issuing broadcast licences and took authority over cable television. However, since they were in power and supervising the regulatory format of both radio and television aspects, the CRTC declared a minimum of 60% of what was being casted, had to be Canadian content. This rule was issued in 1970 and was directed towards Canadian private and public television broadcasters. However, in 1971, the percentage was dropped by exactly half and was primarily directed to AM radio stations. Overall, this declared the amount of U.S entertainment that could be used as it would make the Canadian radio stations and television organisations more open and aware of Canadian alternatives.
C R T C
Ultimately, this would slowly back away from the vicious cycle of the United States entertainment industry dominating Canadian culture; producing a great revenue, but supporting itself financially in case of any fatalities persisting in the future. A main obvious fatality that could become possible, is the backing out of the United States. If this did become a reality, then the Canadian broadcasting comapnies would suffer. Therefore, it was important to include the American programming that Canadians had grown to love, but at the same time, make sure that Canadian culture dominated the television waves.
Rock and Roll was new genre of music and for many American and Canadian religious and conservative groups, it was deemed as unnatural and evil. They essentially wanted to see it banned. However, remained a hit amongst teens who were heavily influenced by the music, but to most parents, it was a foreign concept and the gyrating of performers on stage was considered scandalous. In terms of entertainment as well as shock and disagreement, Americans and Canadians seemed to share the same tastes.
Nuclear Arms Race- 1945: Fazila
Igor Gouzenko Reveals the Soviet's Plan- 1945
NATO- 1949*: Fazila
Africville- 1950: Rawan
Rock 'N' Roll- 1950: Fazila and Rawan
CBC- 1952: Rawan
Warsaw Pact- 1955*: Fazila
Economic Recession- 1957 :Fazila
NORAD- 1957: Rawan
Avro Arrow- 1958 :Fazila
American Investment- 1962: Fazila
Cuban Missile Crisis- 1962: Fazila
Auto Pact- 1965: Rawan
CRTC- 1968: Rawan
*These events are included to further explain the Cuban Missile Crisis.