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WMUS320 Renewal in America Thru 18th Cent
Transcript of WMUS320 Renewal in America Thru 18th Cent
Renewal in America thru 18th Century I. The Early Years
a) Spanish Catholics settling in the Caribbean Islands, Florida & Mexico.
Catholic music flourished in Mexico & South America in 16th Century. Music schools and choirs formed in churches and cathedrals.
American composers wrote masses and motets in the tradition of Palestrina, Victoria, and diLasso. B)1562-1565 French Huguenot refugees settled in Florida.
Brought the Geneva Psalter.
They taught the French psalm tunes to the Indians. c) Easter Seaboard – Largely British (Anglican, non-conformist, Catholic refugees).
Some Dutch Calvinists & French Huguenots. 1) English-speaking Protestants brought the “Old Version” of Sternhold & Hopkins Psalter and the Ainsworth Psalter developed by the Pilgrims in Amsterdam in 1612. 7) Choir schools established by some large churches to aid in training of singers. -Music fundamentals taught as well as some “rote singing.” 8) In the late 1700’s “tune books” were published containing new psalm tunes, folk tunes of British origin, some longer works called “anthems” and the new “fuguing” tunes. 1) All psalms sung to a few tunes.
2) Choirs & instruments were non-existent until after 1700.
3) In the 18th-century, organs & choirs began to appear in larger churches -placed in the rear balcony. 1)Early composers of church music were:
a. Andrew Law b. Daniel Read
c. Oliver Holden d. Supply Belcher
e. Timothy Swan f. William Billings (1746-1800), most creative.
**None had training in European art tradition. B) Moravians – Migrated to Georgia in 1735 to do missionary work among the Indians.
1740 – Many moved on to Pennsylvania (Nazareth, Bethlehem, Lititz) 2) First major book printed in the colonies: Bay Psalm Book (1640)
Revision of psalm texts requested by many resulted in this publication. 3) Psalms were “lined-out” phrase by phrase by a deacon or precentor to aid those without books or those who could not read. United Brethren – Sophisticated musical culture. The Church of the United Brethren in Christ is the first American denomination that was not transplanted from Europe. New texts were added by American leaders & set to music by: Johann Pyrlaeus, Christian Oerler, Johann Peter, Johannes Herbst & Johann Bechler.
They wrote anthems & cantatas in the style of Bach, Stamitz, Haydn & Mozart. II. Revivalist Movements in America:
a) 18th Century Revivals: William Warren Sweet points out that revivalism in the American colonies was introduced by German pietist immigrants in the late 17th & early 18th centuries. -Successors to Zinzendorf & Huss, they were typically protestant.
Their emphasis was more on piety of life than doctrine. Instrumental music also flourished. By 1780 a modest orchestra performed works of the European masters. Not found in the concert hall, but in Moravian worship band. 1) Theodore J. Frelinghuysen (New Jersey, 1720’s) – Dutch Reformed Churches. Known for his impassioned preaching of the need for personal repentance and faith for salvation. 2) William Tennent (Neshaminy, PA, late 1720’s) – Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. A former Anglican who conducted a religious school sardonically called the “Log College.” 1st Great Awakening:
3) Jonathan Edwards (New England, 1734)
Revival Leader & Congregational preacher known for sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.” “The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament” by Isaac Watts – published in America by Benjamin Franklin in 1729 (Philadelphia). “Collection of Psalms & Hymns” – John Wesley, Charleston, SC (1737) “Our congregation excelled all that I ever knew in the external part of the duty before, generally carrying regularly & well, three parts of music, and the women a part by themselves. By now they were evidently wont to sing with unusual elevation of heart and voice, which made the duty pleasant indeed.” 4) George Whitefield (Seaboard Colonies 1738-1770: 7 trips to America!!...)
Greatest revivalist contribution of 18th century. Calvinistic Methodist who was associated with the Wesleys in England. With his ministry, the strict psalm singing of this country began to change: Hymns began to be widely used, especially those of Isaac Watts. 2nd Great Awakening
-Rationalistic Literature became the trend. “Age of Reason” by Thomas Paine influences thinking in pre-revolutionary France. Princeton & Yale became centers for skepticism, atheism & anarchy. Christians ridiculed and persecuted. B) Camp Meetings:
In the late 1700’s rural Baptists in New England were singing both standard British hymns texts and new, more repetitive lyrics to folk melodies brought from the old country. These (sometimes modal) tunes were perpetuated in various music collections: 1. Kentucky Harmony (1816)
2. Southern Harmony (1835)
3. The Sacred Harp (1844) *These came to be known as:
1. Early American folk melodies
2. White Spirituals
3. Appalachain folk tunes
4. Old Baptist Music Secular Tunes for Worship:
In the late 18th century, the revivalist emphasis shifted to the Southern States.
Began with Presbyterians in Virginia, though the movement continued more with the Baptists & Methodists. -All three groups joined in the Frontier Camp Meetings of 1800-1801. Red River Revival: (June 1800) Logan County, Kentucky
Red River Meeting House Cumberland Gap region of Tennessee & Kentucky. 1. James McGready
In 1788, he returned to North Carolina where his intense preaching met with stiff opposition from the "better" classes of people whom he charged with hypocrisy, materialism and sin. McGready worked hard, preaching and praying during these two years with steady results, but nothing spectacular happened until the power of God manifested itself at a service in the Red River Church and the Gasper River Church in July of 1799. In June of 1800, several hundred devout Christians met for a communion service at the Red River Meeting House. The congregation was composed of McGready's three churches. BARTON STONE:
May of 1801, Barton Stone preached a series of services at the Cane Ridge Meeting House in Burton County, Kentucky. He had been invited to speak at the request of Daniel Boone, the Kentucky frontiersman. Presbyterians subscribed to a creed, the Westminster Confession of Faith, and required their ministers to accept it as if it were doctrine taught in the Bible. Stone hedged, agreeing to regard it as normative study only insofar as it was "consistent with the word of God." The Great Western Revival was a tidal wave of religious interest and excitement which began in about 1800, reaching its crest in 1803, and then gradually diminishing as it merged with the normal stream of evangelism. Its principal expansion fields were in Tennessee and Kentucky. The "May communion appointment" at the Concord Church, of which Stone was a member, brought together between 5,000 and 6,000 people of various sects and many preachers of different denominations. This Bluegrass portion of the Great Western Revival climaxed at a Cane Ridge meeting which lasted from Friday to Wednesday, August 7-12, 1801. An estimated crowd of 20,000 gathered for the entire meeting. Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist ministers preached, often simultaneously at different stations throughout the neighboring woods. The work of the Holy Spirit was evidenced in the number of people who “fell” – literally dropped prostrate on the ground under intense emotion of “conviction of sin.” A new type of music appeared in the campmeetings:Improvised Music - Frequently improvised in the fervor of intense emotional experience.
Characterized by great simplicity and much repetition. Much comparison has been made between black spirituals and the music of these campmeetings, called “campmeeting spirituals”. -Suggestions have been made that the campmeeting music may have copied the Black spirituals.However, at that time, particularly in the revivalist context, blacks & whites worshiped together. -It is possible that both groups contributed to the singing at the brush arbor and blacks continued the tradition after whites moved on to new forms of “composed” music. In this lecture, she points out “Where Are the Hebrew Children?” is found in both North and the South and among blacks. (Oriola, 1862 no. 236) Many campmeeting songs became “secular”, in reverse of the typical revivalist metamorphosis, secular to sacred.All these forms were called “spiritual songs”. White & Black spirtuals are virtually all that remain of the campmeeting songs, in common use. However many of the other songs were perpetuated for years in the annual, theologically Wesleyan campmeetings in the North & Midwest. Some were even translated into the Pennsylvania Dutch (low German dialect). “I will arise and go to Jesus” is “one of those old-fashined campmeeting spirituals” which could be sung as a response to Joseph hart’s “Come, ye sinners poor & needy.” “At the cross…where I first saw the light” (based on a popular, secular song) is a lilting Testimony refrain by Ralph Hudson that was added to the sober “Alas! And di my Savior Bleed?” by Watts.