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Keegan Adams

on 3 June 2013

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The evolution of Archaebacteria kingdom The primary characteristics of Archaebacteria Sub- classifications of the Archaebacteria kingdom James Yachera Starting with The Kingdom of Archaebacteria An archaebacteria's methods for obtaining food and it's basic needs for survival Archarebacteria do not obtain
their food in the exact same way.
Instead, they obtain it differently,
and that is determined by their
group in the archaebacterial kingdom Methane-producing bacteria (methanogens) use simple organic compounds as food, such as methonal and acetate. They then combine hydrogen and carbon gasses from the air, forming methane and releasing it as a by-product. Formula for methanol + Bacteria of hot springs or saline areas (such as halophiles) have a variety of ways for obtaining energy, including the use of minerals instead of organic compounds. Even though there are many different ways of obtaining food for archaebacteria, all archaebactera are considered to be autotrophic/heterotrphic in their energy producing habits. All archaebacteria cells are prokaryotic,
meaning that it is a cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops. Archaebacteria's cell walls contain no peptidoglycan, a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of bacteria, creating the cell wall. A peptidoglycan structure Archaebacteria's reproduction their structure, and what makes them unique from the rest of the kingdoms Archaebacteria are extremophiles, able to survive easily in extreme environments such as... Volcanic Vents Hot Springs Boiling Volcanic Mud Sea Vents Like every animal kingdom, archaebacteria can be organized into phylums. These phylums are... Phylum Korarchaeota This division consists of hyperthermophiles found in high temperature hydrothermal enviornments Phylum Thaumarchaeota This phylum includes ammonia-oxidizing archaea, as well as those with unknown energy metablolism. Phylum Nanoarchaeota This phylum has a single representative member named Nanoarchaeum equitans. This unusual archebacterium is somewhat similar to another archaea belonging to the genus Ignicoccus. They are affected by some antibiotics that affect bacteria, but not all. This is because some of these drugs affect their lipid cycle in wall polymer biosynthesis. They are affected by some antibiotics that affect the Eukarya though. Phylum Euryarchaeota Easily the most studied of archaea phylums, this division includes the sub-classifications of
methanogens and halophiles Phylum Crenarchaeota This last division of archaea includes the sub-classifications of thermophiles, hyperthermophiles, and thermoacidophiles (we'll only talk about thermophiles). These organisms are also mostly aquatic. The emerging of archaebacteria started around 3.5 billion years ago, making it currently one of the oldest life forms known to mankind. Currently some scientists are arguing that all life, including man himself, stemmed from archaebacteria, due to it's historic age compared to other organisms. In fact, new evidence suggests that eubacteria and archaebacteria diverged from each other around the time life began on Earth. If this theory is correct, archaebacteria may be the organism that proves Darwin's theory of evolution correct. What's a methanogen? An archaea able to convert CO2 into methane. They are able to live in places with very low amounts of oxygen and can die if exposed to too much. What's a halophile? These archaea can survive in 10 times the concentration of salt in the sea. They can be found in the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea. What's a thermophile? These last archea are able to survive in extremely high temperatures and low pH. Most are anaerobic in nature, meaning not requiring oxygen (especially for metabolism). These different archaea are different in both how they obtain energy, and in how (and where) they live. As we've already discussed, archaea are extremophiles. An extremophile is any organism that can thrive in an enviornment thats detrimental to most other organisms on earth. These enviornments may be highly acidic, alkaline, or saline aquatic ecosystems. Though few can, some archaea live deep inside the earth, for they are immune to atmospheric pressure. Due to their diverse natural habitats, archaea are split into three groups; methanogens, thermophiles, and halophiles. Methanogens These archaea are anerobic, meaning that they cannot be exposed to oxygen. These archea in particular cannot recieve any exposure to oxygen, or else they'll die on contact with it. Methanogens can be found mainly in the stomachs of cattle They can also be found in stomachs
of most termites Methanogens can also be found in marshland. This division of archea produce marsh gasses that can be found in stagnant water. Halophiles These archaea can be found in mostly
aquatic regions, for they can survive
exposure to environments 10 times
the concentration of salt in oceans. Halophiles can be found in bodies of water such as the Dead Sea in the middle east They're also located inside the Great Salt lake, Utah Even though many can be found in overly salted lakes, many are still found in the world's oceans. Thermophiles These last archaea are somewhat
similar to methanogens, for they are also anaerobic, however they can be found in places with very high temperatures. Thermophiles can be found in places such as Yellowstone Park's hot springs and geysers They can also be found in geological vents, such as deep sea thermal vents Also, thermophiles can be located in volcanic vents as well. An autotroph is an organism that produces its energy for itself by itself by ways of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Plants are a common example of an autotroph A heterotroph, on the other hand, find different ways of obtaining energy. The most common heterotroph is an organotroph; an organism that consumes plants and animals for energy. Human beings are a common heterotroph Thermophiles have a different way of obtaining their energy. They use photophosphorylation, a somewhat complicated process. Solar energy is converted to an electricity, ending in ATP
(Adenosine-5'-triphosphate) as a product. Archaea have been known to look very much like bacteria, and thats probably how they got the name of archaebacteria. Archaebacteria Bacteria Archaebacteria range in size from one tenth of a micrometer to 15 micrometers, depending on the division and type of archaea. Here's what the different types of archaea look like... Halophiles Methanogens Thermophiles Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics -White
-Long -Red/Brown
-Short -Grey
-Very long Just like bacteria, archaea don’t have interior membranes and organelles. They're membranes also strongly differ from other life forms (so does bacteria), proving their relationship a very close one. Even though Archaea and bacteria share many commonalities, archaea do have unique characteristics about them. For example Archaea lacks peptidoglycan in their cell wall, still, Archaea has various types of cell walls. Archaea can easily survive in such extreme environment as sea vents releasing sulfide rich gases and hot springs. Most importantly, their cell wall is made of pseudomurein, making them immune to lysozome, an enzyme that attacks and disables walls of pathogenic bacteria. Archaea may be unique, but like every other organism, they reproduce. They reproduce asexually by way of binary or multiple fission, fragmentation, and budding. Binary Fission (binary fission explained in next slide) Eloka Obi Keegan Adams This video can explain archaea (and where they came from) in better detail... This video can better describe the characteristics of archaea... Evolution Primary Characteristics Where it can be found Work cited; "Archaea." Zipcodezoo.com. N.p., 24 Aug. 2012. Web. 23 May 2013. <http://zipcodezoo.com/Key/Archaea/archaea_kingdom.asp#top>.
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