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Ecology

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Margo Fuller

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of Ecology

Exponential Growth
A form of population growth in which the rate of growth increases with time.
Results in a J-shaped growth curve because when plotted on a graph the population increase resembles the letter J.
Ecology
Species
This is a group of organisms who can successfully inter breed with one another in nature, but who don't successfully interbreed with members of other such groups.
Population Dynamics
The patten of any process or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change with in a population.
Arithmetical Increase
An increase in numbers by an addition of a fixed number in each time period.
Population increase for living things are thus proportional to the # of organisms that already exist.
An unvarying number of new units is added to the population.
Population increase for living things are thus proportional to the number of organisms that already exist.
Exponential Increase
An increase in #'s that is proportional to the number already in existence. This type of increase occur in populations of living things, and it carries the potential for enormous growth of populations.
Ecology
The study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment.

Each organism depends in some way on other living and nonliving things in its environment.

Ecology involves collecting information about organisms and their environment, looking for patterns, and seeking to explain these patterns.
Logistic Growth
A form of population growth in which exponential growth slows an then stops in response to environmental resistance.
Also known as S-shaped growth because whent plotted on a graph change in population size resemble the letter S.
Environmental Resistance
All the forces of the environment that act to limit population growth.
Examples; Organisms run out of food or sunlight is blocked or to great a number of predators.
This can be used to predict the size of populations given certain pieces of starting information.
Growth Rate
Growth Rate (r)- is critical because a small change in it can mean a big change in population over time.

Take 1,000 animals with a 6% (r)
1st year 60 animal increase= 1,060
Over 20 years=3,200 animals total

Take 1,000 animals with a 2% (r)
1st year = 1,020
20 years = 1,480
Birth Rate
Death Rate
Birth Rate- # of individuals born in a given time period, expressed as a proportion of the whole population.

Death Rate- # of individuals that die in a given time period, expressed as a proportion of the entire population.
Figuring
Birth Rate / Death Rate
# of Births / # of deaths over the total population

Births = 100
Population 1,000
100/1000 = .1 or 10%

Deaths= 80
Population= 1,000
80/1,000 = .08 or 8 %

2% increase a year
Zero Population Growth
If (r) is zero- meaning the births exactly match deaths in a given period
If it is greater than one it is growing less then one it is shrinking

Intrinsic Rate of Increase
The rate at which a population would grow if there were no external limit on it's growth.
Equilibrium Species
Will not seek out a totally new environment: they experience their environment as a relatively stable entity.
They compete among themselves and with other species for resources with in it.
Density Dependent
Effects on a population that increase or decrease in accordance with the size of that population
Involves biological factors such as food supply and living space.
K-Selected Species
A species that tend to be relatively long lived, that tends to have relatively few offspring for whom it provides a good deal of care, and whose population size tends to be relatively stable, remaining at or near its environment's carry capacity (k)

r-selected species
This is when the population sizes tend to be limited by reproductive rate.
Relatively short lived, tend to produce relatively many off spring for which it provides little or no care, and whose population size tends to fluctuate widely in reaction to an environment that is experiences as highly variable.
K-Selected
Carry Capacity Dependent
Food Supply Competition
Living Space
Life Span
Life Table
A table showing how likely it is for an average species member of survive a given unit of time.
Population
This is all the members of a species that live in a defined geographic region at a given time.
Community
This is all the populations of all the species of living things that inhabit a given area. The term also is used to mean a collection of populations in a given area that potentially interact with each other.

This is all the plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and protists.
Ecosystem
A system that includes all living organisms in an area as well as its physical environment functioning together as a unit.
Biotic Factor
All the living components of an ecosystem. Everything from bacteria to the animals and plants.
Abiotic Factor
Any nonliving component of an ecosystem
Biome
This is the largest terrestrial regions of the Earth that have similar climates and hence similar vegetative formations.

There are 6 major Biomes on the Earth
Tundra
Taigia
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Temperate Grassland
Desert
Tropical Rain Forest
Biosphere
This is the interactive collection of all the Earth's ecosystems. This is the portion of the Earth that supports life.
Carrying Capacity (K)
The maximum population density of a given species that a defined geographical area can sustain over time
Density Independent
Effects on a population that are not related to the size of the population
Tends ot involve physical forces such as temperature and rain.
Opportunist Species
This is when the population size tends to fluctuate greatly in reaction to variations in its environment.
Should a food supply appear; a fly population increases.
r- Selected
Physical Forces
Temperature
Rain
Exist at the whim of environmental forces.
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