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Immigration and Urban America

chapter 5
by

Becky Lockler

on 10 February 2016

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Transcript of Immigration and Urban America

Urban America
Urbanization
Gilded Age
Helping Urban Poor
Arriving in large numbers European and Asian immigrants help speed up industrial growth by providing cheap labor. This caused rapid growth to cities which affected politics, unions, literature and philosophy.
Rebirth of Reform
The debate was on as who should help take care of society's problems.
Nativism
Preference for native-born people and a desire to limit immigration.
They opposed Asians, Jews, eastern Europeans and Catholics.
Immigration
Most immigrants were coming from eastern and southern Europe. Between 1860-1900 14 million immigrants were eastern European Jews.
Many came seeking opportunities, get away from religious persecution and wanted to avoid military service. Immigrant restrictions had changed. This help to break the European class system.
American gave chance for social mobility.
Many felt cities offered lots of opportunities and things not available where they lived.
Bright lights, running water, modern plumbing, libraries, museums and theaters
Glittery and Gold on outside, crime, corruption and poverty on inside. Also showed disparities between rich and poor.
Mark Twain coined the era from 1870-1900.
There was rapid industrial growth and cities were expanding faster then they could keep up.
Reform efforts gave rise to different social groups
salvation Army, YMCA, women's clubs, settlement houses and temperance movements
Steerage
Ellis Island
1st step leave everything.
Only take what you can fit in a bag you can carry. The few things the did come with included skills, education and some money.
Ride Steerage
Basic and cheapest
Crowded, smells, bad food, and no comforts
After 14 days you see her.
Statue of Liberty
Ellis Island
Once you change to a ferry and disembark to
Ellis Island
you check your luggage. It's going to be a long day.
You start by walking up long flight of stairs.
http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/tour/index.htm
Ellis Island was not the only place Immigrants were coming into America at,
Angel Island
also saw new arrivals.
http://www.aiisf.org/
Once processed many began to settle with others from there country. Irish and Italians stayed in New York area, Germans moved west and Chinese settled California.
American Protective Association
Henry Bowers
Workingman's Party of California
Denis Kearney
Chinese Exclusion Act
Barred Chinese from entering US for 10 years and prevented those already here from becoming citizens.
permanent in 1902 not repealed until 1943
Skyscrapers
Because space was limited cities had to go up. Chicago's 10 story Home Insurance Building was the first. Louis Sullivan- well know designer used simple lines and spacious windows.
New York City boasted more than any other city.
Mass Transit
Horsecar
cable cars
trolley car
electric trolley line
elevated railroad
subway
Separation by class
High Society-built well to do homes. Castles, chateau, Tuscan villa,
Middle class-doctors, lawyers, teachers, architects and social workers. most lived in "streetcar suburbs"
Working class-most lived in tenements. children worked to help pay rent.
Individualism
Many Americans believed that no matter how humble the beginnings they could rise in society and go as far as their talents and commitments would take them.
Horatio Alger
"rags-to-riches"
Social Darwinism
Herbert Spencer-evolution and natural selection in human society
Gospel of Wealth
Andrew Carnegie
believed wealthy bore
responsibility of philanthropy
Realism
day-to-day in realistic detail
Saloons
free toilets, water for horses, and free newspapers.
Saloon keepers served as political machines. Saloons offered free lunch-salty food
Now that work was 9-5 people needed an escape from home and work. Amusement Park and sports offered excitement. Coney Island had water slides and fun foods.
Rounders or Baseball along with boxing and football started to become more professional. The first salaried team was the Cincinnati Reds. Leisure activities involved physical exercise-Lawn tennis, golf and Baseball
Vaudeville
-hodgepodge of animal acts, acrobats, gymnasts and dancers
Ragtime-syncopated rhythms
Scott Joplin-The Maple Leaf Rag
Henry George believed a single tax would be the solution to poverty. He help to get many to realize that Social Darwinism and laissez-faire economics were not working.
http://tenement.org/Virtual-Tour/index_virtual.html

Lester Frank Ward-Dynamic Sociology
not on ability to compete but cooperate.
Government-should regulate economy, cure poverty and promote eduction
Edward Bellamy-Looking Backward
awakes in 2000 to a perfect world. Government owns all industry and shares wealth (socialism)
Social Gospel-Washington Gladden
Walter Rauschenbusch
Church began to take on missions
Salvation Army and YMCA
Settlement Houses

Americanization
Assimilate
Melting pot

Political Machine
Party Bosses-George Plunkitt
William M. Tweed
graft
http://www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-us/videos/jacob-riis#jacob-riis

Pushing them out
War & Political Revolution
Bad farming
Religious persecution
Pulling them in
Opportunity
Farm land
Recruited
Chain immigrants
religious and political freedom
Cities Expand and Change
What challenges did city dwellers face and how did they meet them?
Social and Cultural Trends
What luxuries did cities offer
to the middle class?
Conspicuous consumerism
Now making wages many wanted to buy the new products. Because technology was improving items could be made cheaper and faster.
Department Stores
Rowland Macy open the 1st
High quality at fair prices

John Wanamaker
offered money back guarantee & advertised in newspaper.
As postmaster general he lowered bulk shipping which led to mail order catalog.
Department stores created trademarks.
Long distance shipping allowed for consumers from across county to purchase name brands.
Standard of Living
Trying to keep up with the rich the new middle class and working class wanted new and better. Cost of living decreased and modernized products cost less.
With better sanitation and medical care life expectancy increased.
Ready made clothes, prepackaged food gave homemakers more time.
Indoor plumbing became common.
Public transportation allowed families to move from cities.
Newspapers
Joseph Pulitzer started the
World
newspaper in New York. The papers were supported by advertisements. They were sensationalistic filled stories covering political corruption, comics, sports and illustrations.
Competitor William Randolph Hearst created the
Morning Journal
. Many ethnic groups had their own newspapers.

Schools were now rapidly expanding. Grade school education became compulsory. Kindergartens were establish to help working class moms. Courses included science. woodworking, civics and English.
To help Americanize immigrants they taught courses to make them good citizens.
Normal schools (colleges) began to increase.
Women were starting to be accepted.
Newly freed slaves also set out to prepare for opportunities.
Other outdoor activities included
Buffalo Bill's Wild West show
Chautauqua
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