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Teaching the whole child

An introduction to child development for primary and secondary teachers

Paul Hopkins

on 11 September 2018

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Transcript of Teaching the whole child

An introduction to child development
We can think of development in three areas:
Development is not linear
Some important points
What questions does this raise for you in terms of what you need to learn more about?
emotional, social and moral
Cognitive Development
How much do we look at the development of the whole child and not just the cognitive or chronological domain?
Physical Development
Social, Emotional, Moral Development
Sensory Motor Stage
(Birth - 2yrs)
Pre-Operational Stage
Concrete Operational Stage
Formal Operational Stage
Centered on the idea of "schema"
Schemas are mental representations or ideas about what things are and how we deal with them
Much of a baby's behaviour is triggered by certain stimuli, in that it is reflexive
Shortly after birth the baby learns to use muscles and limbs for movement - these are action schema
Babies can only consider themselves and their needs - egocentric
Begins to associate cause and effect
Simple ideas about time and space
There is no world outside of their own existence - if I cannot sense it, it does not exist
About 8-9 months object start to become interesting in and of themselves
The "object permanence" test - challenged by others e.g. Bower
Children's thought processes are developing, although they are still considered to be far from 'logical thought'
Big focus on language learning - very fast vocabulary improvement
Still generally ego-centric - and assume everyone shares their view [like the SoS!]
They begin to "decentre" - can believe that someone else should be the centre of attention
'Animism' is also a characteristic of the Pre-operational stage. This is when a person has the belief that everything that exists has some kind of consciousness e.g. a car won't start because it is "tired" - a characteristic of egotism since all things are like them
'Moral realism' - the belief that the child's way of thinking about the difference between right and wrong, is shared by everyone else around them
Schemas are developing with "Symbolism" - children begin to give labels to objects they see in everyday life so they encounter a four-legged creature in the house and are told it is a dog - so all household four legged creatures fit into the schema of 'dog'
Rules and procedures are very important - and should be followed by all
Development is not steady
Development is not the same for all children - there is no "normal" only normative
Chronological age is not necessarily the same as developmental age
During this stage, the thought process becomes more rational, mature and 'adult like', or more 'operational' - though this continues into the teenage years
In the Concrete Operational stage, the child has the ability to develop logical thought about an object
Belief in animism and ego centric thought tends to decline during the Concrete Operational stage, although, remnants of this way of thinking are often found in adults - "the computer hates me!"
During the Concrete Operational Stage, children gradually develop the ability to 'conserve', or learn that objects are not always the way that they appear to be.
Children are able to begin to imagine different scenarios, or 'what if' something were to happen
Once children have learnt to conserve, they learn about 'reversibility'. This means that they learn that if things are changed, they will still be the same as they used to be
Finally, in the formal operational stage of adolescence, the structures of development become the abstract, logically organized system of adult intelligence
When faced with a complex problem, the adolescent speculates about all possible solutions before trying them out in the real world
The formal operational stage begins around age 11 and is fully achieved by age 15, bringing with it the capacity for abstraction
This permits adolescents to reason beyond a world of concrete reality to a world of possibilities and to operate logically on symbols and information that do not necessarily refer to objects and events in the real world
'hypothetic-deductive reasoning'. When faced with a problem, adolescents come up with a general theory of all possible factors that might affect the outcome and deduce from it specific hypotheses that might occur - then they apply these to the real world to find the best solution
'propositional' in nature. Adolescents can focus on verbal assertions and evaluate their logical validity without making reference to real-world circumstances
Important because:

1. It allows new learning to take place. A baby who learns to crawl can then start to move and explore his or her environment, touching items of interest.

2. It allows further development to take place. Once a child has learned one skill he or she can build on that skill.

3. It effects self-esteem - a child who can ride a bicycle feels good about themselves while older children who cannot catch or skip may lack confidence.
Key Skills:

FINE MOTOR SKILLS: Fine manipulative: These are small movements that are needed when children write, draw or put together a jigsaw puzzle. Although many fine manipulative activities often involve a degree of hand–eye coordination, hand–eye coordination is actually a separate skill. A feely bag, for example, requires fine manipulative skills but no hand–eye coordination.
Fine motor: These are small movements using the whole hand and wrist, such as twisting a knob or opening a jar.

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS: Gross motor: These are whole limb movements used when, for example, a child kicks a ball. Locomotive: These are movements that children use in order to walk, run and jump.
In the first 3 years there are huge physical developments from the "helpless" baby in arms to a highly mobile and active human being who can often tire out their parents.

3 months - watching hand, clasping, lifting head, waving arms
6 months - reaching, mouthing, lifting arms, rolling over
9 months - grasping, dropping, sitting, crawling and rolling
12 months - picking up, releasing, standing by holding, heaving up
18 months - using spoon, scribbling, building towers, walking, climbing onto toy, squatting
24 months - drawing circles and dots, using spoon effectively, run, climbing onto furniture, sit-and-ride toys
30 months - hand preference, simple jigsaws, kick a large ball, may use tricycle
36 months - turns pages in book, washes (with help), holds crayon, steer and pedal tricycle,
run forwards and backwards, throws large ball

Toddlers and pre-school children often move and run in short bursts. They find it difficult to go for long walks but will happily run a little and then clamber to sit in a pushchair. The heart rate of toddlers and pre-school children is higher than that of adults as their lungs and heart are smaller.
In the next few years physical development continues

4 years - can do buttons, cuts out simple shapes, draws stick people
- walks on line, aims and throws ball, hops

5 years - forms letters, writes own name, colours in, 20 piece jigsaw
- skips with a rope, runs quickly and avoids obstacles, throws
and catches large ball

6-8 years - is able to join handwriting, cuts out shapes accurately, produces detailed
drawings, ties and unties shoes
- hops, skips and jumps confidently, balance on beam, changes and dodges, uses
bicycle and roller skates
Children in Juniors are continuing to develop:

Fine motor skills become more refined allowing for intricate work such as model making, knitting and typing. Less concentration is required allowing children to talk as they use their hands.

In their gross motor skills increased coordination and perceptual skills. These allow children to concentrate on strategies during games such as football or netball.

As children’s heart and lungs grow they are able to sustain activity levels for slightly longer periods, although the need to rest frequently remains. This means that most 10-year-olds will be able to maintain physical activity for longer periods than 6-year-olds, but both age ranges will still need resting periods. Endurance-type activities such as long distance running for this age range are not usually appropriate because of the developing stamina levels. Boys’ and girls’ stamina levels are similar, with boys having the slight edge, although there are of course individual differences which are partly dependent on the physical build, weight and exercise levels.
Physical maturation continues into secondary school:

Ossification of the hands and wrists is completed in the teenage years.
It allows for incr
eased strength in hands allowing for movements such as twisting lids off jars.

Increased stamina and physical endurance as lungs and heart develop

During adolescence, stamina levels increase dramatically. This is because of the gro
wth spurt that ta
es place as part of puberty. There are marked differences between the stamina, spee
d and strength of
boys and girls: boys are stronger and able to sustain physical activity for longer period
Puberty in boys
Puberty in girls
Starts about the age of 11 but can be between 9 and 14
Hormonal changes can effect concentration and behaviour
Self-esteem and self-awareness impact on attitude
Increased musculature improves physical performance
Friendships and romantic attachments become very important. School is the main arena for much of the 'action' in your child's life - and often the 'action' doesn’t involve schoolwork!
Starts about the age of 10 but can be between 8 and 14
Hormonal changes can effect concentration and behaviour
Self-esteem and self-awareness impact on attitude
Increased musculature improves physical performance
Friendships and romantic attachments become very important. School is the main arena for much of the 'action' in your child's life - and often the 'action' doesn’t involve schoolwork!
Some studies indicate that puberty impacts on academic achievement in girls.
= Emile Durkheim - 1902
= Peter the Hermit C11th
= Seneca C1st AD
= Socrates C4th BC
Erik Erikson - 1902 to 1994
Stages of Personal and
Social Development
Lawrence Kohlberg
1927 to 1987
Stages of Moral Development
Social -
Trust v Mistrust / To get and to give in return / Children develop a sense of trust from reliable, nurturing carers who provide both care and affection. Touch and visual contact are important. A lack of this may lead to mistrust, insecurity and a feeling of worthlessness

Social Interaction -
Noticing other children and willing to play side by side by the age of 2

Moral - Preconventional: Up to the Age of 9

unishment & Obedience:
ight and wrong defined by what they get punished for.  If you get told off for stealing then obviously stealing is wrong.
strumental - Relativist: S
milar, but right and wrong is now determined by what we are rewarded for, and by doing what others want.  Any concern for others is motivated by selfishness.
Social [18m to 3 year] -
Autonomy v Doubt / Shame - To hold on and let go - Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of pride, autonomy and high self-esteem while failure may result in feelings of shame and doubt

leading into
Social [3y to 6y] -
Initiation v Guilt - To copy and pretend - Children need to explore their social and physical environments. Parents who encourage exploration promote a sense of initiative and purpose. Discouraging or punishing children’s initiative may lead to feelings of guilt.

Social Interaction -
by 3 playing with others; both genders; friendships forming; activity more important than partner

Moral - Still Preconventional: Up to the Age of 9
Jean Piaget
1896 - 1980
Sensory Motor
Concrete Operational
Social [6y to 12y] -
Industry and Inferiority - To make things alone and cooperatively - Children are focused on learning new things and making friends. Success leads to feelings of accomplishment, competence and industry. Failure results in feelings of inadequacy and inferiority.

Social Interaction -
5-7 stable friendships forming; willingness to share; seeking out friends; tend to same sex friendships between 8 and 11 friendships based on compatibility with similar interests; boys tend to groups and tend to be inclusive and focus on physical - whilst girls tend to pairs / threes and can be exclusive and focus on emotional

Moral - Still Preconventional: Up to the Age of 9 then Conventional - see next stage
Social [12y to 18y] -
Identity v Role confusion - To be yourself and share with others - Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity to decide ‘who am I?’. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself and your ideals, while failure leads to role confusion, a weak sense of self and struggle to fit in.

Social Interaction -
wider friendships develop; these become support networks away from family; friends used for advice; based on personality and values more than interests; mixed gender friendships become more common; groups increase (to age 13) and then decreases; intimate and sexual friendships develop.

Most adolescents and adults

Interpersonal concordance -
Being good is whatever pleases others.  The child adopts a conformist attitude to morality.  Right and wrong are determined by the majority

Law and order -
Being good now means doing your duty to society.  To this end we obey laws without question and show a respect for authority.  Most adults do not progress past this stage.
Formal Operational
Key Intellectual Development Markers 0-6m

vocalises (oh-ah, coo)
vocalises spontaneously
discovers impact on environment

Key Intellectual Development Markers 6-18m
uses one or two words - e.g. Mama / Dada
points to familiar things and can name them
points to body part
develops a curiosity about the world
develops object permanence

Key Intellectual Development Markers 18-36m
Develops knowledge about the world
Starts to draw (scribble)
Talks in sentences and is mostly intelligible
Vocabulary of between 200 and 400 words
uses pronouns - e.g. I / you / we
drawings becomes more recognisable
working on simple puzzles
talking in sentences and is understandable nearly all the time
defines familiar words
tells and makes up stories
recognises more and more words in text
vocabulary increases rapidly from 400 to about 3000 words
learns to count to 10 (most) and to 20 (some)
has some likes and dislikes
has some idea of cause and effect in relation to self and own needs - e.g. I am hungry, I want some food
expresses ideas, joins in conversation and asks question (lots!)
highly verbal and develops sense of humour and word play - jokes and puns!
asks more focused questions (how, what, when)
can deal with more abstract ideas
likes codes and secret languages
likes routine and rituals - and develops an understanding of these
is able to judge own level of success
wants to develop skills and become competent
enjoys task-orientated projects (e.g. art, craft) and likes to collect things talent in 'creative arts' may bloom at this time
learns the concepts of past, present and future
Key Intellectual Development Markers 3 to 6 years
Key Intellectual Development Markers 6 to 12 years
develops impressive gains in ability to think and to reason
able to consider abstract and conceptual ideas such as love, justice, respect and truth
able to reason, generate general principles and test against evidence, to see both sides of an argument
capable of introspection and of thinking about how things might be
developing ability to problem solve and to utilise imagination
developing sense of fairness and self-worth
become more self-reliant and able to work independently
considers the nature of the future and the impact of the present on it
Key Intellectual Development Markers 12 to 18 years
A group of Year 8 girls - whilst chronologically close in age - will be very different in other maturational metrics
Problems With Research Methods: Much of the criticism of Piaget's work is in regards to his research methods. A major source of inspiration for the theory was Piaget's observations of his own three children. In addition to this, the other children in Piaget's small research sample were all from well-educated professionals of high socioeconomic status. Because of this unrepresentative sample, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population
Problems With Formal Operations: Research (Donaldson) has disputed Piaget's argument that all children will automatically move to the next stage of development as they mature. Some data suggests that environmental factors may play a role in the development of formal operations.
Underestimates Children's Abilities: Most researchers agree that children possess many of the abilities at an earlier age than Piaget suspected. Recent theory of mind research has found that 4- and 5-year-old children have a rather sophisticated understanding of their own mental processes as well as those of other people. For example, children of this age have some ability to take the perspective of another person, meaning they are far less egocentric than Piaget believed.
Critics of Piaget
Guess the time period in which these were said
A group of Year 6 girls - whilst chronologically close in age - will be very different in other maturational metrics
or how does this ...
become this ...
become this ...
and eventually this ...
Choose one of the children from the pack
Philip (aged 6)
Courtney (aged 9)
Jamil (aged 11)
and consider their needs - working in a group of about 4 - further work is to consider the further reading you need to do.
The best measure may be skeletal age - rather than chronological age.
Sarah-Jane Blakemore UCL - The teenage brain

"newish" understanding on teenage brain (last 15 years)
assumption it was all about puberty and hormones
core function is development of self - friendships become very important
development of "hypersensitivity" of being excluded (FOMO)
this can lead to risk-taking behaviours
changes in sleep patterns (global) due to melatonin production
move from dependence to independence
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