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Agrarian Reform in the Philippines

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Marvin Comia

on 18 September 2016

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Transcript of Agrarian Reform in the Philippines

-Because of the agrarian problem, the farmer is poorer.
-He cannot afford to pay more taxes and thus, government cannot raise sufficient revenue with which to support its operations.
-The farmer is poor and less and less people
want to be farmers
-The people leaves the farms
-They flock to cities to try their luck.
-There is overcrowding and “urban squatting”,
unemployment and crime.
Agrarian Reform
Accomplishments under the CARP
Philippine Agrarian
Problem

Agrarian Reform Defined
AGRARIAN REFORM IN THE PHILIPPINES
1. Two important dimensions
2. A basic problem of Philippine Society
Concept of Agrarian Reform
Means the redistribution of lands, regardless of crops or fruits produced, to farmers and regular farm workers who are landless, irrespective of tenurial arrangement, to include the totality of factors and support services designed to lift the economic status of the beneficiaries and all other arrangements alternative to the physical redistribution of lands, such as production or profit-sharing, labor administration, and the distribution of shares of stock which will allow beneficiaries to receive a just share of the fruits of the lands they work.

-Land and the people; Agricultural and the social
-Productivity and human rights
- Person who tills the land does not own it and the person who owns the land does not till it.
- Person who tills the land does not own it and the person who owns the land does not till it.
- The non-tilling owner gets more income while the non-owning tiller gets relatively poorer and poorer
VICIOUS CIRCLE OF POVERTY AND INJUSTICE
3. Basically a question of land and distribution and utilization
-Land is necessary for all human beings & everybody has the right to use land for his survival
-The right to use is given to all individuals but the matter to be used is limited & the number of users unlimited
-The right to own property, universal but limited
A derivative of the right to use
We have the right to own things because we have the right to use things in order to live. If this is not so, what then is the basis of our right to ownership?
Corollary
While the right to own is derived from right to use, the right to own is further qualified by its proper use.
Precept of Philippine Agrarian Reform
Agrarian Reform:

land tenure improvement, with land distribution at the core,
and support services delivery as a crucial input. (Bulatao, 1990)
"Land to the tiller"
intended to democratize income and wealth while improving the socio-economic status and well-being of the rural poor. vehicle towards industrialization through the proceeds from land compensation and the resulting agricultural surplus.
3 Phases of the Program
PHASE 2
Covers about 7.4 million hectares was to be devoted to reforming all public agricultural lands to be opened for new development and resettlement, as well as private lands 50 hectares and above.
Different Modes of Land Acquisiton and
Re/distribution
For public lands which comprise more than half of the target land reform, distribution is done through either Free Patents for Alienable and Disposable ( A & D) lands, Certificates of Land Ownership Awards (CLOAs)

For resettlement sites, or stewardship contracts for public lands covered by the Integrated Social Forestry Program (ISFP)
No system of land ownership
Regarded all land as their public domain, although they did not choose to cultivate all of the available land
No formalized procedures for recognizing private ownership (deeds, title, tax documents)
Pagan system
PHASE1
Covers around 1.45 million hectares was to be devoted to the completion of the Marcos land reform, the reform of idle and abandoned lands, and lands voluntarily offered for sale the owners, and the reform of estates foreclosed by government financial institutions and those acquired by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG).
- Involve the realignment of land relationships to meet the interest of the govt and the dominant class in a society.
- Transformation of land relationship that tillers of the soil are emancipated from pre-modern exploitation by the landed class leading to economic development in countries where agricultural sector is dominant. (Takahashi, 1990)

- Also referred to as
land reform
reform: concerned w/ rights in land , their character, strength & distribution.
agrarian reform: concerned w/ political & economic power and the relations between them.
History
Spanish Colonization
The Spanish settlement in the Philippines revolved around the encomienda system of plantations, known as
haciendas.
American Colonial Period
1902 Philippine Organic Act
the Catholic Church agreed to gradually substitute Spanish priests with Filipinos and to sell its land.
Commonwealth Period
tenant farmers complained about the sharecropping system.
dramatic increase in population.
Manuel L. Quezon
Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933
regulate the share-tenancy contracts by establishing minimum standards
Manuel Roxas
Republic Act No. 1946 also known as the Tenant Act.
Elpidio Quirino
Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO)
Ramon Magsaysay
National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA)
Diosdado Macapagal
Agricultural Land Reform Code (RA 3844)
Ferdinand Marcos
Established the Department of Agrarian Reform
(DAR)
Corazon Aquino
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program
Each farmer is given a "certificates of land ownership award" or CLOA for their new property.
a landowner can only retain 5 hectares, regardless of the size of the hacienda.
Fidel Ramos, Joseph Estrada,
Gloria Arroyo, Noynoy Aquino III
Strengthend the implementation of CARP
Republic Act No. 6657
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law
Signed by President Corazon Aquino on June 10, 1988.

The Comprehensive
Agrarian Reform Law is responsible for the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP).
PHASE 3
Divided into two- sub phases and has a combined coverage of 1.35 million hectares.

Phase 3-A was supposed to cover private agricultural lands of 24 to 50 hectares
Phase 3 – B is supposed to cover private farmlands of areas above the retention limit up to 24 hectares

Compulsory acquisition (CA) is the main mode to be used in expropriating lands whose owners did not voluntary offer them for land reform
CARP was originally conceived to need around P221 billion which covers both the land acquisition cost and the package of support infrastructure , both physical and social.

CARP defers land redistribution of commercial farms, defined as private lands over five hectares devoted to livestock, poultry, aquaculture including salt beds. Fishponds and prawn farms, fruit farms, orchards, vegetable and cut-flower farms, and cacao, coffee and rubber plantations. These will be subject to expropriation only after 10 years from June 15, 1988.



For public lands
For Private lands
CARP implementation status, land distribution accomplishment, and balance as of Dec 31, 2012
PAL- Private agricultural lands
CBFM- Community Based Forest Management
A&D- Alienable and disposable
ARB- Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries
ISF- Integrated Social Forestry
Marvin Comia
Jeffrey Beriña
Francis Eda
Patrick Juanillo
Dwight Ronald Valles
Ken Adrianne

EnD
Full transcript