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Endocrine System

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Yu Pan

on 14 February 2013

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Transcript of Endocrine System

Endocrine System The Endocrine Diseases The Health Balance The Endocrine System Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: The endocrine system is a system of glands that releases "hormones" into the body (kingwendy). MLA Citation kingwendy. "The Endocrine System." Glogster. <http://www.glogster.com/kingwendy/the-endocrine-system/g-6laeu9r4cv2iunrp6irkqa0> These "hormones" regulate "mood", "growth", "development", "tissue function", "metabolism" and "reproductive processes" (kingwendy). The major glands that make up the human endocrine system include: Part 1: Pineal Gland; Hypothalamus; Pituitary Gland Part 2: Parathyroid Glands; Thyroid; Thymus Part 3: Adrenal Glands; Pancreas Part 4: Ovaries (female); Testes (male) "Secreted Hormone": Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; Dopamine; Growth hormone-Releasing Hormone; Somatostatin; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; Oxytocin; Vasopressin (Wikipedia) Hypothalamus: Wikipedia. "Endocrine system." <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocrine_system> Pituitary Gland: "Secreted Hormone": Growth hormone; Thyroid-stimulating hormone; Adrenocorticotropic hormone; Beta-endorphin; Follicle-stimulating hormone; Luteinizing hormone; Prolactin; Melanocyte-stimulating hormone; Oxytocin; Vasopressin (Wikepedia) Pineal Gland: "Secreted Hormone": Melatonin (wikipedia) Thyroid Gland: "Secreted Hormone": Triiodothyronine; Thyroxine; Calcitonin (Wikipedia) "Secreted Hormone": Parathyroid Hormone (Wikipedia) Parathyroid Gland: Thymus Gland: "Secreted Hormone": Thymus Hormone (Wikipedia) Adrenal Gland: "Secreted Hormone": Glucocorticoids; Mineralocorticoids; Androgens; Adrenaline; Noradrenaline; Dopamine; Enkephalin (Wikipedia) Pancreas Gland: "Secreted Hormone": Insulin; Glucagon; Somatostatin; Pancreatic polypeptide (wikipedia) If you are females: Ovaries: "Secreted Hormone": Progesterone; Androstenedione; Estrogens; Inhibin (Wikipedia) If you are males: Testes: "Secreted Hormone": Androgens; Estradiol; Inhibin (Wikipedia) Case 1: Hypothalamus Syndrome Case 2: Hyperthyroidism Case 3: Diabetes Mellitus Case 4: Menopausal Syndrome Causes of Endocrine Diseases 1. Dis-Regulated Hormone Release 2. Inappropriate Response to Signaling Go Right Please! I have just ordered a little! 3. Lack of a Gland A: Give me a bottle of water please! B: Sorry we have no such thing! 4. Structural Enlargement in an Important Site (e.g., Thyroid) "Wow! It is much larger than the normal rabbit!" Kasper. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine." McGraw Hill, 2005. 2074. Print. (Kasper 2074) Why hypothalamic diseases might happen Sylvia. "Hypothalamic disease." In Editor-in-Chief: Luciano Martini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of endocrine diseases. 2004. New York: Elsevier. 678-687. Print. Rehan. "An Overview of the Hypothalamus The Endocrine System’s Link to the Nervous System."
<http://www.endocrineweb.com/endocrinology/overview-hypothalamus> What consequences they might bring There are many reasons for this: (1) Genetic Disorders; (2) Radiation; (3) Surgery; (4) head trauma; (5) Lesion; (6) Physical Injury (Rehan; Sylvia 678-687). These factors might induce "damage" to the hypothalamus, hence influence the "hormones" listed before. (1) Disruptions in Body Temperature Regulation; (2) Disruptions in Growth; (3) Disruptions in Weight; (4) Disruptions in Sodium and Water Balance; (5) Disruptions in Milk Production; (6) Disruptions in Emotions; (7) Disruptions in Sleep Cycles (Carmichael & Braunstein 3005-3048; National Institutes of Health). National Institutes of Health. "Hypothalamic dysfunction." 2009. <http://www.nlm.nih.gob/medlineplus/ency/article/001202.htm> Carmichael & Braunstein. "Diseases of Hypothalamic Origin." Los Angeles, CA: Academic Press. 2009. 3005-3048. Print. Would there be any treatment Yes, but it is a long-term treatment. during the remedy processes, "Physiotherapy", "Reflexotherapy" and "Physical Activities" are required. What is hyperthyroidism Dario et al. "Kochar's Clinical Medicine for Students." Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Fifth edition. 2008. 402-403. Print. What are the Symptoms of hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism is defined to be the "overactive thyroid" --- the situation when the thyroid gland secretes "excessive" amounts of "thyroid hormones" (Dario et al. 402-403). Almost all kinds of issue in the body would be influenced by the thyroid hormone, and the process of metabolism (e.g., speed) are also under the control of this hormone. Hence, the "excessive" amounts of thyroid might lead to the "speed-up" of body functions. So the symptoms include: "Nervousness", "Irritability", "Increased Perspiration", "Raised Heart Racing", "Hand Tremors", "Anxiety", "Difficulty Sleeping", "Skim Thinning", "Brittle Hair", "Muscular Weakness", "Good Appetite but Weight Loss", etc. What are the treatments to this disease (1) use of "Antithyroid Drugs"; (2) "Surgical Therapy" or "Radioisotope Therapy"; (3) Controlled Diets (e.g., avoid high-iodine food) (Little & Susan) Little & Susan. "Feline Hyperthyroidism". Winn Feline Foundation. 2009. Why could diabetes mellitus happen A person having diabetes mellitus would have a high "blood sugar level". Two reasons might contribute to this situation: (1) "Pancreas" could not produce enough "insulin"; (2) "Cells" could not respond to the produced "Insulin". (Shoback. Chapter 17). Shoback. "Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.)." New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2011. Chapter 17. What are the Symptoms of diabetes mellitus Common symptoms include: (1) Weight Loss; (2) Frequent Urination; (3) Increased Thirst; (4) Increased Hunger (Cooke & Plotnick) Cooke & Plotnick. "Type 1 diabetes mellitus in pediatrics". Pediatr Rev. 2008. 29 (11): 374–84. Could it be possible to manage diabetes Yes, but it is a "Chronic Disease" and could not be remedied currently. Hence, the aim of the "diabetes managements" is to keep the "blood sugar level" at an acceptable level. (Cooke & Plotnick) What is menopausal syndrome Menopause is defined as the "end" of "monthly periods" for women (usually at 40 to 50 years old) (PubMed Health). PubMed Health. "Menopause." 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001896/> Why would menopausal syndrome happen This is because during the menopause periods, there will be less "Estrogen" and "Progesterone" produced by the "Ovaries". Hence the "Hormone" reductions would cause "Menopausal Syndrome" (PubMed Health). What are the symptoms of menopausal syndrome Usually, symptoms of menopause include: "Night Sweats"; "Skin Flushing", "Sleeping Problems " and "Mood Swings", etc. (PubMed Health) Could there be any treatment to this syndrome Yes, the majority is "hormone therapy", which is effective, and there are also controlled diet treatments (long-term remedy) (PubMed Health). The Importance of Endocrine System 1. The Endocrine System is one of the importance systems that control the human bodies (i.e., Endocrine System and Nervous System). All hormones are controlled by the Endocrine System to be at the acceptable levels (be "normal" i.e. not too high or to low). How to Keep the Balance of Endocrine System 2. The Endocrine System could help the human beings to survive in extremely difficult situations (e.g., a mother might even have the strength to push the very heavy car from her baby in an accident). Overall, the Endocrine System could secrete "hormones" so as to keep the "balance" of the bodies Step 1: Keep a Healthy Diet Step 2: Check the Family History Step 3: Maintain a Good Mood Osten et al. "How to Maintain the Endocrine System." WikiHow to do anything. (Osten et al.) (e.g., Avoid Stresses, Depressions, etc.) Thank You !
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