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Music-Teaching Anxiety in Undergraduate Music Education Majors

Music-teaching anxiety is an unexplored area. Information and implications are drawn from other fields on anxiety.
by

Martina Vasil

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Music-Teaching Anxiety in Undergraduate Music Education Majors

A Scenario... Yerkes-Dodson Law (1908) F. Fuller (1969) LeBlanc (1994) Performance Anxiety in... Music Teaching Anxiety Summary Music Teaching Anxiety in
Undergraduate Music Education Majors Coping Strategies Pre-Teaching Phase Non-Concern Early Teaching Phase Late Concern Concerns with Self Concern with Pupils Overt Covert Implications More phases?
Personality vs Situation
Generalizable?
Mirroring collegiate courses?
Treatable concerns Teaching Anxiety Music Performance Anxiety Start
Here Evolutionary Functions Defense mechanism

Fewer risks, seek safety, doing things well

Threat of the ego Reduce anxiety Reactive Response
Prefrontal cortical areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex): reduced control of actions
Amygdala: hyperresponsive and processes more stimuli as threatening Can lead to troublesome thought patterns

Understanding anxiety can help improve higher education course instruction and help students to succeed Review of the Literature Commonalities? State Anxiety-
in the moment Two Types of Anxiety Dependent on the context
Transitory, emotional state of tension and apprehension
Associated with alerting nervous system Trait Anxiety-
related to personality, genetics Predisposition to anxiety
Inability or more difficult to "disengage" from stimuli that appear threatening
Certain personality traits: Introverts and Neurotics What Factors Interact with Anxiety Levels? Internal External Physiological Cognitive Behavioral Fight or flight
State of arousal
Health Perceived ability to cope
Perceived control
Self-focused
Preoccupied with negative thoughts
Memory loss
Catastrophe model
Self-handicapping and perfectionism Yerkes-Dodson Law (1908) Physiological symptoms that break down performance
Changing normal performance habits Situational Task Related Task mastery: ability and training
Fine vs. large motor skills
Preparation Context of the situation-level of competition, type of competition, solo vs. group
Timing-closer to performance time of day
Audience
Physical environment Coping Strategies Physiological Cognitive Behavioral Situational Task-Related Relaxation techniques
Biofeedback training
Alexander Technique
Beta-blockers Cognitive restructuring
Goal setting: process and outcome goal
Accept anxiety
Meditation Practice correctly
Practice often Internal External Mental rehearsal
Practice performance
Systematic desensitization
Supportive peer audience
Choose favorable time of day
Having more control Finding the balance:
Challenge and skills
Work and play Anxiety is powerful! Limitations
Deliberately confined to sports, teaching, music, and dance performance
Other fields of research: public speaking, test taking Further Research
Teaching anxiety across cultures
Gender and anxiety
Differences in subject matter
Other populations with music teaching anxiety-classroom teachers (M182) Cognitive factors have the greatest affect on anxiety
Most effective cognitive coping strategies:
Accepting it
Understanding symptoms
Focus on process, task-oriented thoughts
Self-talk this is how i feel. West Virginia University School of Music
M779: Psychology of Music, Fall 2012
Dr. Sandra Schwartz
December 4, 2012 Martina Vasil, Ph.D. student What do you notice? Symptoms? In relation to your own experiences? What IS anxiety?
NOT an Emotional Disorder Subset of arousal NOT Fear Physiological and cognitive symptoms A part of DAILY life-it IS normal! (Garza & Ford, 2009; Gill, 2000; Landers & Arent, 2006; Lorentezen, 1980; Merriam-Webster, 2012) It's complex, negative feelings Genetics, culture, situations, emotions (Öhman, 2000; Wilson, 2012) (Lehmann, Sloboda, & Woody, 2007) (Robertson & Eisensmith, 2010; Wilson, 2012) Disengage from stimuli Control of attention
Working memory Circuitry between prefrontal cortical areas and amygdala Emotions, long-term memory, behavior
Working memory to long-term memory
Processes emotional reactions and threat-related stimula (Robertson & Eisensmith, 2010; Wilson, 2012) Attentional System anxieties anxiety apprehension nervousness worry concern unease disquiet fretfulness angst
fear
tenseness
stage fright uneasiness
preservice confidence attitude burnout
role identities (Brand & Dolloff, 2002; Brewer, 2009; Campbell & Thompson, 2007; Jorgensen, 2009; Paise, 2010; Paul, 1998) Becoming a teacher: need more answers, curriculum confusion, how to actually teach music, identity, contribute to conversations with colleagues, classroom management Gail: "I wasn't used to getting up in front of people that much in the beginning. And I think that it was especially because it was other people my age, you know, they know when you make a mistake" (Paul, 1998, p. 81). "I had to get over my anxiety about being in front of people, and when I did, I felt really good about it" (Paise, 2010, p. 136). MUSC 382 "Less severe the more I teach" (Chang, Midlarsky, & Lin, 2003; Deutsch, 1999; LeBlanc, 1994; Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Lehmann et al., 2007; Lorentzen, 1980; Nideffer & Sharpe, 1978; Radocy & Boyle, 2003; Robertson & Eisensmith, 2010; Tan et al., 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010) (Biddle, 1983; Deutsch, 1999; Garza & Ford, 2009; Hodges & Sebald, 2011; LeBlanc, 1994; Lehmann et al., 2007; Lorentzen, 1980; Nideffer & Sharpe, 1978; Radocy & Boyle, 2003; Robertson & Eisensmith, 2010; Tan et al., 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010) (Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Keavney & Sinclair, 1978; LeBlanc, 1994; Lehmann et al., 2007; Lorentzen, 1980; Nideffer & Sharpe, 1978; Robertson & Eisensmith, 2010; Tan et al., 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010) (Cheng, Hardy, & Markland, 2009; Cheng, Hardy, & Markland, 2011; Cheng, Hardy, & Woodman, 2011; Deutsch, 1999; Garza & Ford, 2009; Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Keavney & Sinclair, 1978; LeBlanc, 1994; LeBlanc, Jin, Obert, & Siivola, 1997; Lehmann et al., 2007; Lorentzen, 1980; Radocy & Boyle, 2003; Roland, 1997; Tan, Pfordresher, & Harré, 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010; Wilson, 2012) (Cheng et al., 2009; Cheng et. al, 2011; Cheng et al., 2011; Deutsch, 1999; Fuller, 1969; Garza & Ford, 2009; Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Keavney & Sinclair, 1978; LeBlanc, 1994; Lehmann et al., 2007; Lorentzen, 1980; Mahoney & Avener, 1977; Radocy & Boyle, 2003; Roland, 1997; Tan et al., 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010) (Deutsch, 1999; Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Lehmann et al., 2007; Radocy & Boyle, 2003; Tan et al., 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010) (Abrahamsen, Roberts, Pensgaard, & Ronglan, 2008; Biddle, 1983; Deutsch, 1999; Fuller, 1969; Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Keavney & Sinclair, 1978; LeBlanc, 1994; Lehmann et al., 2007; Radocy & Boyle, 2003; Tan et al., 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010; Weinberg, & Genuchi, 1980) (Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Lorentzen, 1980; Martens, 1977; Spielberger, Gorsuch, & Luschene, 1970; Wilson, 2012) (Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Jorgensen, 2009; Lehmann et al., 2007; Lorentzen, 1980; Spielberger et al., 1970; Wilson, 2012) (Robertson & Eisensmith, 2010; Wilson, 2012) (Cheng et al., 2009; Deutsch, 1999; Fuller, 1969; Highlen & Bennett, 1979; Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Keavney & Sinclair, 1978; LeBlanc, 1994; LeBlanc et al., 1997; Lehmann et al., 2007; Lorentzen, 1980; Mahoney & Avener, 1977; Radocy & Boyle, 2003; Spielberger et al., 1970; Tan et al., 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010; Wilson, 2012) (Garza & Ford, 2009; Lehmann et al., 2007; Lorentzen, 1980; Robertson & Eisensmith, 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010) (Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Lehmann et al., 2007; Lorentzen, 1980; Tan et al., 2010) Work with others to identify (teaches, peers)
Note taking, group discussion, observation (LeBlanc, 1994; LeBlanc et al., 1997; Lorentzen, 1980; Robertson & Eisensmith, 2010; Walker & Nordin-Bates, 2010) (Deutsch, 1999; Hodges & Sebald, 2011; Lehmann et al., 2007; Radocy & Boyle, 2003; Tan et al., 2010) WHY do we get anxious? Summary Anxiety disrupts the amygdala-prefrontal circuitry Classroom management: discipline, large classes, knowing student names, being 'called out' Concerns are highly contextual: + anxiety +more teaching responsibilities, unfamiliarity Making an impact on student lives Concerns don't change throughout preservice music teacher program, only after real teaching experience Teaching peers Evaluation Aspirations: elementary or higher education=more anxiety "Having children as my subjects does not make me as nervous" 10, 5, 1 minute(s) to start: butterflies, clammy palms, faster heart rate, CALM Talking to self, building confidence Asking questions: "What is the worst that could happen?" Feeling anxious and jittery "I ran over my lesson plan repeatedly in my mind, but felt like I wouldn't remember any of it." Felt more comfortable as lesson progressed Tongue-twisters, talking fast, slow brain "I did immediately reflect back on my teaching and criticize myself (internally)" "Before I teach is when my teaching anxiety is at it's most extreme." Negative thoughts-Ways the lesson can go wrong "Pump" self up, get excited for teaching Setting a goal: student learning and enjoyment-reduced anxiety "Whatever happens, happens" Audience Timing Physical Cognitive "Stress and nerves are inevitable" In the moment: calm, fun, unlike music performance (shaking and tenseness) Anxiety vanishes after teaching
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