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Chapter 10: Sexuality and Gender

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Michelle Fierro

on 29 March 2011

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Transcript of Chapter 10: Sexuality and Gender

Chapter 10

Sexuality & Gender


Michelle Fierro
Objectives: The Physical side of Human Sexuality The Psychological Side of Human Sexuality
Human Sexual Behavior
Describe Sexual Disfuntions
Research Prevalence Rates-Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The primary Sex Characteristics - sexual organs present at birth and directly involved in human reproduction Female Primary SEx Characteristics Vagina - the tube that leads from the outside of a female's body to the opening of the womb.

Uterus - the womb in which the baby grows during pregnancy

Ovaries - the female sexual glands The Physical Side of Human Sexuality Male Primary Sex Characteristics penis - the organ through which males urinate and which delivers the male sex cells or sperm

testes (testicles) - the male sex glands

scrotum - external sac that holds the testes

prostate gland - gland that secretes most of the fluid holding the male sex cells or sperm The SEcondary SEx Characteristics - sexual organs and traits that develop at puberty and are indirectly involved in human reproduction Female growth spurt that begins at about ages 10 - 12 and is over about one year after the first menstrual cycle (also known as menarche)

enlarged breasts abouth 2 years after the growth spurt

widers hips to allow the passage of the fetus through the pelvic bones

pubic hair

fat deposits on the buttocks & thighs

mammary glands in the breasts become capable of producing milk for an infant when menstrual cycle begins Male deepening voice

facial & chest hair

pubic hair

development of coarser skin texture

large increase in height that continue beyond the growth spurt of the female

onset of the production of sperm (spermache occurring at alittle over 14 years of age)

growth of the penis and testes The Psychological Side of Human Sexuality Gender Roles & Gender Typing gender - the psychological aspects of being male or female

gender roles - the culture's expectations for masculine or feminine behavior, including attitudes, actions, and personality traits associated with being male or female in that culture

gender typing - the process of acquiring gender role characteristics

gender identity - the individual sense of being male or female Biological Influences - hormonal differences

females exposed to male hormones prior to birth exhibited male characteristics (i.e. tomboy)

males brain's enhanced reaction to visual sexual stimuli might be a product of natural selection as early human males who could quickly recognize a receptive female would have had a greater opportunity to mate and pass on their genes to their offspring


Environmental Influences - societies norms

Western culture dictates that males and females are expected to play certain roles (i.e. males are pressured to be masculine and females are to be feminine)


Culture and Gender - Individualistic/nontraditional role adoption verus collectivistic /traditional role adoption Theories of Gender Role Development Social Learning Theory - gender roles learned through observation and imitation of models

Gender Schema theory - a theory of gender role development that combines social learning theory with cognitive development. Gender Stereotyping - a concept held about a person or group of people that is based on being male or female Stereotype - a concept held about a person or group of people based on superficial, irrelevant characteristics Male & Female Stereotypes Male
aggressive
logical
decisive
unemotional
insensitive
nonnurturning
impatient
mechanically talented

Female
illogical
changeable
emotional
sensitive
naturally nurturing
patient
all-thumbs mechanically speaking Androgyny - a concept developed by psychologist Sandra Bemm to describe a a characteristic of people whose personalities reflect the possitive characteristics of both males & females, regardless of gender Gender Differences - How do men and women differ in thinking, social
behavior, and personality? Cognitive Differences - (e.g., listening skills) may be present but are possibly due to psychological &
social issues rather than biology
FEMALE
score higher on test of verbal abilities
MRI technology found that women listen with both hemispheres which suggest they pay attention to the tone and emotions of a statement as well as content

MALE
score higher on test of mathematical skills and spatial skills
MRI technology found that men listen with the left hemisphere only

NOTE: MORE EVIDENCE IS SUGGESTING THAT THE COGNITIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE MEN AND WOMEN ARE DISAPPEARING WHICH CAN BE TAKEN AS A SIGN THAT MORE EQUAL TREATMENT IN SOCIETY HAS REDUCED THE GENDER DIFFERENCE. social and Personality Differences - are often the result of stereotyped thinking
about the sexes FEMALE
are encouraged to form emotional attachments
be emotional
be open about feelings with others
use the "relate" style of communication revealing their private lives
show concern and sympathy
tend to interrupt each other less
allow everyone to participate in the conversation

MALE
taught to hold in their emotions
encouraged not to cry
encouraged to be "strong" and "manly"
communicate in a "report" style
switch topics frequently
dominate the conversation

The Intersex Controversy
consists of a large number of intersexed individuals who, have developed ways of communicating with one another through the internet and within organizations, are no longer happy with being designated as "abnormal" and forced to have surgical alterations while still infants. Hermaphroditism - the condition of possessing both male & female sexual organs HUMAN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Sexual Response: Masters and Johnson, Observational Study, (1955/1956), prostitutes

Phase One: EXCITEMENT - beginning of sexual arousal and can last anywhere from 1 minute to several hours

Phase Two: PLATEAU - the physical changes in the first phase are continued. In women, theouter part of the vagina swells with increased amounts of blood to that area, while the clitoris retracts under the clitoral hood but remains highly sensitive. In men, the penis becomes more erect and may release a drops of fluid. At this point, it is unlikely that the male will lose his erection. This phase may only last a few seconds to serveral minutes

Phase Three: ORGASM - this is the shortest of the 3 stages and involves a series of rhythmic muscular contractions known as the orgasm. In women, this involves the muscles of the vaginal walls and can happen multiple times, lasting slightly longer thatn the orgasm of the male. In men, the orgasmic contractions of the muscles in and around the penis trigger the release of the seminal fluid. Men typically only have one intense orgasm.

Phase Four: RESOLUTION - the final phase of the sexual response, when the body returns to its normal state before arousal began. The blood vessels in the various areas of the genitals recedes; the heart rate, blood pressure, and breathin all reduce to normal levels during this phase.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOR The Kinsey Study (1938-1948) - suryvey, male participants, face-to-face interviews

The Janus Report (1983-1993) 3000 people, 48 states, interviews and questionnaires, age 18 to 65 Sexual Orientation - refers to a person's sexual attraction & affection for members of either the opposite or the same sex Heterosexual - person attracted to the opposite sex

Homosexual - person attracted to the same sex

Bisexual - person attracted to both men & women

Development of Sexual Orientation - Simon LeVay said the hypothalamus is three times larger in heterosexual males than in homosexual males but his findings are pure correlation. SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS

Organic or Stress-Induces Dysfunction - sexual problems caused by physical disorder or psychological stress
Daniel G
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