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European Immigrants in the Industrial Revolution
Transcript of European Immigrants in the Industrial Revolution
In the middle half of the nineteenth century, more than one-half of the population of IRELAND emigrated to the United States (USHistory.org).
How did it Affect the Immigrants?
New Wave of Immigration!
Support in Progress
Many of the immigrants coming in the new wave of immigration were from Europe. These immigrants came from all around Europe, but the two major groups from Europe were the Germans and the Irish. These immigrants played a key role in the industrial revolution, which would greatly impact our modern day country. The Irish potato famine was happening around the time so there were major push factors that were pushing them towards America.
America was also advertised as a land where anyone could go start a business and become rich within a month. These people came to America chasing the American dream and wanted to escape their past lives. The major companies had hiring agents that would go to Europe and show the locals about the wonderful land. They greatly exaggerated the experiences they would see and made the US look much better and more appealing. This got many of the immigrants to come to America seeking new jobs (Crash Course).
By Brandon Hawi, Rhea Tamondong, Raven Thio, Michael Valenzuela
Friday, October 3, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
What caused the Industrial Revolution?
The Big Picture
The New Industrial Revolution
America advanced greatly during industrialization. After the Civil War, the government encouraged Americans to increase production and improve transportation.
European immigrants are being affected today by the new industrial revolution. For example, in the year 1960, 74.5% of immigrants were European; in 2010, the percentage of Europeans in the immigrant population had fallen to only 12.1% (Russell). This is a direct result of the new industrial revolution, as new technology allows for Europeans to work remotely for American corporations. Another example is that fertility rates have gone down, and infant mortality rates have gone down as well for Europeans (ESA). This is due to the fact that medical technology has advanced during this revolution, and resulted in infant mortality rates decreasing. Parents, seeing that infant mortality rates have gone down, have stopped having as many children, as more children now survive the first 12 months of their life.
The Industrial Revolution impacted America significantly. For example, production techniques including transportation and communication had improved subsequently leading to increased consumerism. As a result, living standards and job opportunities increased, cities grew, and the economy improved.
Who was involved and
who did it affect?
How did the Industrial Revolution impact America?
Published by Wilhelm and Walker Inc.
Also, many factories depended on natural resources, like coal, oil, and lumber .
In addition, millions of immigrants from various nations came to America searching for jobs and homes (Lapsansky-Werner, Emma J).
Ultimately, new technologies were introduced, such as Edison’s light bulb (Hoppit, Julian), that had a great impact on the economy and everyday life.
Many other groups were affected by industrialization. For example, after the South was defeated in the Civil War, they began creating factories so they could become a mixed economy. This had improved their economy by shifting from agriculture to manufacturing.
Workers during industrialization faced many hardships due to the corruption and power of large businesses. Many laborers worked in very poor conditions that were unsanitary and often dangerous. Additionally, these workers were overworked and received little to no vacation time (Lapsansky-Werner, Emma J).
During the Industrial Revolutions, corporations started to form. These corporations became very large and wealthy, hiring millions of workers and making the nation
economically dependent on factory production and manufacturing. The company owners started to create trusts and monopolies which made it very difficult for smaller companies to expand and grow. Consequently, the federal government started to make restrictions, prohibiting companies from creating trusts and monopolizing products such as the Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1890 (Hoppit, Julian).
An example of technology used to improve the process of childbirth.
An company that is leading the way for remote communications and productivity, allowing for Europeans to work from outside of the United States.
During the Industrial Revolution, millions of immigrants came to the US because of the job opportunities, political and religious freedoms, and affordable land in America. There were several “push” factors that influenced emigration to America which included religious persecution, economic hardships, lack of jobs, and forced military service (Lapsansky-Werner, Emma J).
Edited by Raven Thio
A Call for Reform
During the age of industrialization, many people saw the corruption of businesses and sought change. This movement would later be known as the Progressive Era, a period when people wanted to reform laws to restrict controlling businesses. Since businesses depended on the large wave of European immigrants for labor, businesses would often overwork employees, underpay workers, and disregarded their working environment. The progressive movement significantly affected the abused European immigrants by promoting better living and work conditions, enforcing minimum wage laws, and limiting work day hours.
Despite having long, repetitive working hours, laborers received miniscule payment while women and children even less. After forming unions and worker right’s organizations, working conditions finally improved (Lapsansky-Werner, Emma J).
Migration to the US may have been a long process, from weeks to months, and some immigrants were sent back. Life in America was difficult for some immigrants because they had a challenging time adapting, they had to face discrimination, and had poor living conditions.
Another very important group were the women, during this era they were paid less money and given less rights than the men. However, after the development of Progressive reforms, movements, and organizations, they were finally able to vote in 1920. Other groups affected by Progressive or Populist reforms were the African Americans, Mexican Americans, Asian Americans, the Jewish, farmers, and more.
America also went through social change. A middle social class had emerged from attorneys, accountants, and other fields. Also, people of all genders and race were given more rights, such as voting. After the Industrial Revolution, America became one of the most powerful countries.
"US Since 1865: The "Second Wave"
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Throughout the Progressive Era, many groups formed to advocate for reform of businesses for worker rights. Groups such as the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the Knight of Labor promoted worker rights regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender.
Hull House located in Chicago, Illinois
"My friends, we have met here today to celebrate the idea that has prompted thousands of working-people of Louisville and New Albany to parade the streets...; that prompts the toilers of Chicago to turn out by their fifty or hundred thousand of men; that prompts the vast army of wage-workers in New York to demonstrate their enthusiasm and appreciation of the importance of this idea; that prompts the toilers of England, Ireland, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and Austria to defy the manifestos of the autocrats of the world and say that on May the first, 1890, the wage-workers of the world will lay down their tools in sympathy with the wage-workers of America, to establish a principle of limitations of hours of labor to eight hours for sleep, eight hours for work, and eight hours for what we will" (Gompers).
In Samuel Gompers's speech "What does the Working Man Want?," Gompers castigates businesses for their mistreatment of their employees, requesting that businesses limit work hours and improve working conditions. Despite his death in 1924, Gompers was ultimately successful in his quest for worker rights when the Fair Labor Standards Act was established in 1938 setting "the minimum hourly wage at 25 cents, and the maximum workweek at 44 hours" (Ｇｒｏｓｓｍａｎ). This act validated the success of the progressive movement and its impact towards various groups by limited the power of the businesses and giving more freedom to hard working European immigrants.
Many progressives found ways to support immigrants such as Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr who founded the Hull House, a settlement home for newly arrived European immigrants. People of the progressive movement all helped ensure that immigrants would have proper living conditions and fair working rights.
Similarly many services were offered to immigrants such as the International Institute of Toledo. This institution is part of the YWCA who promote women's rights and eliminating discrimination. They provided translators, second language classes, and assistance in job searching.
"Ever since the Industrial Revolution, investments in science and technology have proved to be reliable engines of economic growth." -Neil deGrasse Tyson
Safety from Persecution
Some of the impacts the revolution that the immigrants saw was safety and freedom. The Immigrants were safer and were able to practice their cultures freely. Many of these immigrants were escaping countries that were becoming hostile. The Industrial revolution gave them safety and freedom. These immigrants were also able to practice their religion freely. During the industrial revolution anti-semitism was beginning to rise in Europe (USHistory.org). Many Jews were able to escape to freedom and safety.
Ｔｈｅ Ｐｒｏｇｒｅｓｓｉｖｅ Movement led to many reforms that directly affected European immigrants by providing support for housing and job-searching and reducing strict business control over workers. The unified progressives successfully changed the ways businesses were run, giving workers more freedoms and making labor less taxing on worker health as a result of limited workweek hours and improved working conditions.
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