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MRSA

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by

Patrice D'Orazio

on 8 June 2015

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Transcript of MRSA

MRSA: The Silent Epidemic
What does MRSA look like?
Impacts of MRSA on Patient Outcome
Methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus
A type of staphylococcus bacteria ("staph") that is resistant to the antibiotics typically used to treat normal staph infections
Why Does MRSA Matter To Us?
It causes 20,000 deaths a year (CDC)
Mechanisms of Resistance
About 2% of the US population has MRSA on their skin (CDC)
Typically causes skin infections but it can spread to other parts of the body and become fatal
Causes about 95,000 invasive infections every year
MRSA has been steadily increasing and now causes 300,000 hospitalizations per year (CDC, 2007)
Which cost the healthcare system up to $9.7 billion in 2005
What is Staphyloccocus?
The most concerning aspect of MRSA is its resistance to so many types of antibiotics
Resistance developed over the past few decades as a result of
overuse
and
misuse
of antibiotics
MRSA first appeared in patients in hospitals and other health facilities
MRSA, in this setting, is referred to as health-care associated MRSA (HA-MRSA)
85% of all invasive MRSA infections are from health-care facilities (CDC)
14% of MRSA infections are now community-associated (CA-MRSA) and originate outside of the hospital
HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA have distinct genotypes and therefore exhibit biological & clinical differences
The acquisition of the
mecA
gene is the major mechanism responsible establishing resistance to methicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin)
As rapidly as new antibiotics are introduced, staphylococci have developed efficient mechanisms to neutralize them
Thus,
S. aureus
is a pathogen of great concern because:
1. of its intrinsic virulence
2. adaptability to cause a diverse array of life-threatening infections
3. capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions
Bacterial resistance to traditional antimicrobials continues to increase
This study examined sensitivities of MRSA & MSSA to commonly used topical antimicrobial agents.
Nonprescription, more commonly used antibiotics were found to have the least effect on these bacteria
Limitations &
Conclusions
The study was performed
in vitro
Only 5 topical antimicrobial treatments were used
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is a constant concern and is continuously evolving
Although the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance is well known at this point, the interactions between antibiotic resistance and wound microbiology are less clear
The Future of MRSA
Testing for MRSA before hospitalization
Testing high-risk groups in the community
Scientists and drug companies are working to develop a new antibiotic and exploring the possibility of a MRSA vaccination
How to Protect Ourselves
Showering immediately after sport practice or exercising at the gym
Wash towels, sheets, athletic clothes regularly
Cover wounds appropriately. An open sore is an open door.
Sharing is NOT caring
Wash your hands
The Formation of a Biofilm is Essential
MRSA bacterium are often found in biofilms
S. aureus
have a significantly greater ability to adhere to surfaces
Organisms in biofilms can result in chronic infections
The
S. aureus
bacterium behave as a unit within the matrix of a biofilm
There are over 30 different types of staph that can infect humans
It can be found in the nose and on the skin of 25-30% of healthy adults
Under normal, healthy circumstances, the bacteria do not cause disease
Most infections, however, are caused by

Staphylococcus aureus
A group of graduate students in Japan wanted to further study MRSA biofilm formations
Their objective?
What they did...
And what they concluded?
Major finding- once biofilm adheres to the surface, MRSA colonization occurs with ease
How Do They Form?
Bacterial biofilms are now known to play an important role in a range of chronic infections
The capacity of
S. aureus
to form a biofilm is an important virulence factor that helps the organism survive
What makes these strains so aggressive and virulent that they attack healthy people?
Other Barriers to Treatment
MRSA infections are also difficult to treat because of the bacteria’s capacity to form a biofilm
Biofilm facilitates the bacteria’s ability to grow on surfaces, increases resistance and decreases antibiotic penetration
Certain strains of MRSA carry genes that produce toxins that can increase the severity of the infection
These strains continue to challenge doctors, researchers, and patients
Full transcript