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Development of the Periodic Table

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on 1 December 2016

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Transcript of Development of the Periodic Table

1820
1860
1900
1780
1870
Development of the Periodic Table
Johann Döbereiner
(1829)
Alexandre-Emile
Béguyer de Chancourtois
(1862)
John Newlands
(1865)
Shania Sadhwani and Fernando Buxó
Sources


"Development of the Periodic Table." Development of the Periodic Table. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.

"HMH Virtual Sampling 3." HMH Virtual Sampling 3. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.
Antoine Lavoisier
(1789)
Stanislao Cannizzaro

(1860)
Earliest attempt to classify elements

Grouped the elements based on their properties into gases, non-metals, metals and earths.
Several other attempts were made to group elements together over the coming decades.

Recognized triads of elements with chemically similar properties, such as lithium, sodium and potassium, and showed that the properties of the middle element could be predicted from the properties of the other two.
More than 60 elements had been discovered

September: group of chemists assembled at the First International Congress of Chemists in Karlsruhe, Germany to settle the atomic mass of each element.

Method for accurately measuring the relative masses of atoms- enabled chemists to agree on standard values for atomic mass and initiated a search for relationships between the mass and other properties.
His principal contribution to chemistry was the 'vis tellurique' (telluric screw), a three-dimensional arrangement of the elements constituting an early form of the periodic classification.

Telluric Screw plotted the atomic weights of the elements on the outside of a cylinder, so that one complete turn corresponded to an atomic weight increase of 16. This arrangement means that certain elements with similar properties appear in a vertical line.

Although the telluric screw did not correctly display all the trends that were known at the time, he was the first to use a periodic arrangement of all of the known elements, showing that similar elements appear at periodic atom weights.
Newlands noticed that there were similarities between elements with atomic weights that differed by seven: The Law of Octaves, drawing a comparison with the octaves of music.

The noble gases (Helium, Neon, Argon etc.) were not discovered until much later, which explains why there was a periodicity of 7 and not 8 in Newlands table.

Newlands did not leave any gaps for undiscovered elements in his table, and sometimes had to cram two elements into one box in order to keep the pattern.
Julius Lothar Meyer
(1868)
Meyer was a German chemist that organized elements according to their valency.

His first periodic table only included 28 elements. He later included the transition metals in a more advanced periodic table organized by their atomic weight.

He was also the first to recognize periodic trends in the properties of the elements.
Dmitri Mendeleev
(1869)
Newlands noticed that there were similarities between elements with atomic weights that differed by seven: The Law of Octaves, drawing a comparison with the octaves of music.

The noble gases (Helium, Neon, Argon etc.) were not discovered until much later, which explains why there was a periodicity of 7 and not 8 in Newlands table.

Newlands did not leave any gaps for undiscovered elements in his table, and sometimes had to cram two elements into one box in order to keep the pattern.
Mendeleev was one of the first scientists to successfully create a periodic table that was organized in a way that we still use today in our periodic tables.

Much like Meyer, he separated the elements into atomic weight but unlike Meyer, he further organized them by their properties into vertical rows.

Another big improvement of Mendeleev's table is that he left spaces predicting the discoveries of other elements for the next 15 years.
1890
William Ramsay
(1890)
William Ramsay was a Scottish chemist. He discovered the set of the periodic table called the noble gasses.

At the time, Mendeleev's periodic table had predicted the locations for around 5 other elements but when the noble gasses were discovered, people thought that Ramsay had outsmarted Mendeleev.

It turns out that the noble gasses fit perfectly into Mendeleev's table and were added to an 8th vertical column at the end. In 1904, he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Henry Moseley
(1913)
Henry Moseley was an English physicist and chemist that was the first to accurately measure the atomic number of atoms.

He did this by firing X-Rays at samples of elements and measured the wavelength and frequency. This further solidified the position of many elements and the relocation of others.
Glenn Seaborg
(1940)
Glenn Seaborg was an American chemist that discovered several radioactive elements including Uranium, Plutonium, and Neptunium.

In 1951, he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his contributions to the periodic table and discoveries of several elements.
Thank You!
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