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CMIN 201 (Sp '17) T13 -14 - Applied Anthropology in Missions
Transcript of CMIN 201 (Sp '17) T13 -14 - Applied Anthropology in Missions
Applied Anthropology in Missions
*Highlighting some thoughts from chapter 7 of
Introduction to Global Missions
How is the way an insider thinks of his own culture called?
Terms Used in Cultural Anthropology
- unfair critique of other cultures
- suspend judgment
hot- or cold-climate cultures (Sarah Lanier)
Basic Culture Scales
Geert Hofstede's five dimensions
group oriented, relational, inclusion minded, indirect in their communication
individualism, direct communication, value privacy
time and event orientation
dichotomistic and holistic thinking
task and person orientation
status and achievement focus
crisis and noncrisis orientation
concealment of vulnerability and willingness to expose vulnerability
Sources and Image Credits
Sherwood G. Lingenfelter and Marvin K. Mayers,
(Baker, 2003), 34.
who are organized planners and do one thing at a time
cultures in Latin America and much of Africa that are people oriented and may do several activities at once, moving freely back and forth among them
respect-oriented, introverted listeners who prefer to respond rather than push their opinion first
Theology for Guilt, Shame, and Fear Cultures
Theology for Guilt, Shame, and Fear Cultures
; accessed March 1, 2015; http://honorshame.com/theology-guilt-shame-fear-cultures-free-resource/.
Entering Another Culture
Duane Elmer, Cross-Cultural Connections (IVP, 2002), 66.
Evangelical Missions Quarterly (October, 1998): 407 - 408; C1 – C6 Spectrum developed by John Travis (pseudonym); accessed March 1, 2015; http://thepeopleofthebook.org/C1-C6_Spectrum.html.
Contextualization in Muslim Settings
Four Step Process of Critical Contextualization
- How does change happen in a society?
- As a Christian what is the ultimate goal in cultural
- Is society homogenous
(uniform)? -> implication for
not homogenous, although the different groups have some values in common
change happens to a certain degree in many directions, not just in one; people of the host culture will also change
becoming more like Christ
Description of the spectrum (John Travis):
- the six types differ by language, culture, worship
forms, degree of freedom to worship with others,
and religious identity
different approaches are needed
- to assist church planters and Muslim background
believers to find out which type of Christ-centered
communities may draw the most people from the
target group to Christ
- the C1 - C6 Spectrum compares and contrasts types
of "Christ-centered communities" (Muslim world)
- all worship Jesus as Lord
- core elements of the gospel are the same
- spectrum addresses the enormous diversity in
terms of ethnicity, history, traditions, language,
culture, and theology.
The purpose of the spectrum:
- all of these six types are presently found in some
part of the Muslim world
- missionaries establish a church that is basically
identical to wherever they are from.
A Brief Summary of Each Christ-Centered Community
- services are conducted in the language of the
- they call themselves "Christians"
- they have very little cultural connection to the
region where they plant the church.
- the same as C1, except the services are
conducted in the language of the region
- they have incorporated many non-religious
cultural forms of the region into their
community (e.g., dress, art, etc.)
- they still reject any purely Islamic religious
- they may meet in a traditional church building
or in a more religiously neutral location
- they call themselves "Christians" but try to have
a more contextualized presence in the region
- similar to C3, but they incorporate some
Islamic religious elements into their community
(e.g., like avoiding pork, praying in a more
Islamic style, using Islamic dress and employing
- call themselves "Followers of Isa"
- their meetings are usually not held in
traditional church buildings
- they are not considered to be Muslims by the
- retain their legal and social identity within their
- reject or reinterpret any part of Islamic practices
and doctrine that contradict the Bible
- may or may not attend the mosque regularly
- are actively involved in sharing their faith in
Jesus with other Muslims
- may call themselves Muslims who follow
Isa al-Masih, or just Muslims
- may be viewed by their community as Muslims
that are a little unorthodox.
- keep their faith secret because of an extreme
threat of persecution, suffering or legal
- may worship secretly in small groups
- do not normally share their faith openly and
have a 100% Muslim identity
Hiebert suggests that the missionary study to exegete the culture; i.e., seek to know it and understand what they are doing and why they are doing what they do.
Study the Word of God, note where God (not your home church necessarily) speaks to some cultural practice as sinful.
Study the passage in the hermeneutical community of fellow believers and then lead them to see what God says about this practice and challenge them to face it in light of his Word.
Guide them into a new contextualized practice that will serve as a functional substitute for the sinful practice.