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Transcript of WW2
Pacific Theater 1941-1946
Warefare of WW2
European Theater 1939-1945
The League of Nations was an international organization set up in 1919 to help keep world peace. It was intended that all countries would be members of the League and that if there were disputes between countries they could be settled by negotiation rather than by force. If this failed then countries would stop trading with the aggressive country and if that failed then countries would use their armies to fight.
In theory the League of Nations was a good idea and did have some early successes. But ultimately it was a failure
When Japan invaded Manchuria in China, an area rich in minerals and resources. China went to the League for help. The League of Nations told to the Japanese government that they were to withdrew from Manchuria immediately. However the Japanese refused and continued their conquest in Manchuria. The League then called for countries to stop trading with Japan however because of the depression many countries did not want to risk losing trade and did not agree to the request. The League demanded again to Japan that they should leave Manchuria immediately after the leagues request Japan left the league of nations. That was an example of why the League of Nations failed and also not all countries joined the league ,Germany was not aloud to join the league and they didn't want Russia because the league was afraid of communism and the league was to ask member countries to stop trading with an aggressive country. However, this did not work because countries could still trade with non-member countries because when the depression started in the early 1920's governments didn't want to lose trading posts with other non-member countries.
WW1 navy battleships no longer dominated the sea power. Newly designed aircraft carriers were equipped with greater range and a heavier striking power. Due to time constrains in producing new ships, older ships were being retro fitted newly designed components
By William Diament,
Scientist of the Atomic Bomb
Imperalism played a mayjor role in the beginning of the war. It had to do with different countries wanting to expand and other countries wanting to keep their land. Before the United States got into the war, they had just gone trough the Great Depression and did not want to start a war with anyone. They wanted to keep themselves and work on rebuilding their own economy. The Bombing on pearl harbor drastically changed the policy. Germany wanted to expand their borders because it was Adolf Hitler's dream to take over the world. He continued to take over countries across Europe and Africa until the Allied forces put an end to it. japan was also looking to expand as well. Their country was very tiny and they wanted more space. Russia had a problem with Japan expanding into their territory and wanted to end Japan's expansion. While Japan was trying to move in to Russia, they were also trying to take land from China as well. Neither country was very happy with Japan, Great Britian had a problem with Germany taking over of Europe because that meant that they would soon be taking over Great Britain as well. As you can see, countries trying to take over other countries was major factor in the war.
Treaty of Versailles
From the first hours of Hitlers invasion of the Soviet Union, the propagandists on both sides of the conflict portrayed the struggle in stark, Manichaean language. The totalitarian nature of both regimes made this inevitable. On one side stood Hitler, fascism, the myth of German supremacy; on the other side stood Stalin, communism, and the international proletarian revolution. Philosophy of government that stresses the primacy and glory of the state, unquestioning obedience to it's leader, subordination of the individual will to the state's authority, and harsh suppression of dissent. Martial virtues are celebrated, while liberal and democratic values are disparaged. Fascism arose during the 1920's and 30's partly out of fear of the rising power of the working classes; it differed from contemporary communism by it's protection of business and landowning elites and its preservation of class systems. The leaders of the fascist governments were Adolf Hitler of the Nazi party,Mussolini of Italy,Stalin of Russia, and the Emperor of Japan named Hirohito.
The Most destructive conflict in all of human history that took 72 Million life's and changed what the world has become today. A war that was fought not by just one country but almost all of the government superpowers were involved in the war.
"The Enemy of my Enemy is my friend"
One of the main topics of the treaty was the war guilt clause, its incumbent reparation payments, and the limitations on the German Military such as restrictions on submarines vessels,no aircraft's of any kind. Germany also fell into a large debt after the treaty of versailles. This treaty is one of the main causes of World war II this put a strain on the germans after world war I and brought Hitler and his Nazi Party into what it was during the war.
Many of the seeds of World War II in Europe were sown by the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I. In its final form, the treaty placed full blame for the war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, as well as exacted harsh financial reparations and led to territorial dismembement. For the German people, who had believed that the armistice had been agreed to based on US President Woodrow Wilson's lenient Fourteen Points, the treaty caused resentment and a deep mistrust of their new government, the weimar Republic. The need to pay war reparations, coupled with the instability of the government, contributed to massive hyperinflation which crippled the German economy. This situation was made worse by the onset of the Great Depression.
Advancements in Firearms
North Africa was controlled by Dictator Mussolini of Italy had control of Morocco,Tunisia,Libya, and Algeria. Mussolini was planning on expanding the empire through the Middle East and Take control of the continent Africa after they take Africa Hitler was planning to begin the invasion to South America after taking Africa, The campaign was fought between the Allies and Axis powers, many of whom had colonial interests in Africa dating from the late 19th century. The Allied war effort was dominated by the British Commonwealth and exiles from German-occupied Europe. The United States entered the war in 1941 and began direct military assistance in North Africa on 11 May 1942. Fighting in North Africa started with the Italian declaration of war on 10 June 1940. After the late 1942 Allied Operation Torch landings in North-West Africa, the Allies finally encircled Axis forces in northern Tunisia and forced their surrender. Operation Torch in November 1942 was a compromise operation that met the British objective of securing victory in North Africa while allowing American armed forces the opportunity to engage in the fight against Nazi Germany on a limited scale. Most of the battles in Africa were fought in the middle of the desert and sometimes in the towns. The heat was excruciating in South Africa and would get up to hundred degrees Fahrenheit. Africa was also were the biggest tanks battles would occur between the germans and the british because of the wide expansion of desert that they fought in. Most of the Warfare that was used in Africa was a mixture of Guerrilla and conventional quick response which means they move quickly in the battles because of heavy armored vehicles.
The Campaign in Europe was fought between the axis powers(Nazi's,Italy) and the allied powers (Britian,U.S.A,Russia, and local resistance fighters in France) Stalin and his troops fought fro the east of Germany after the failed Invasion into Stalingrad and Moscow and were pushing german forces back into Berlin. U.S Forces were invading from North Africa to Italy and sson would begin the Invasion of Normandy also known as D-Day into France and would fight their way into Germany using Tanks,Bombers,Paratroopers and Infantry troops and the U.S were allied with Britain and invaded Italy and France after taking North Africa. In Europe during combat operations it was freezing cold temperatures would sometimes drop 14 degrees Fahrenheit it was one of the coldest winters in history especially during the battle of the Buldge were snow would drop hard into the forest's of Bastogne and in the when Germany invaded Russia the snow would drop the same that it would at Bastonge Snow would drop to at least three to four feet of snow. During the Invasion of Normandy and after it was mostly overcast and rained on different occasions. Most of the allied and axis forces fought in the forests,farms,small towns, or cities in the cold weather. AA fire from axis cannons were also used to shoot down troop transport planes, fighters or bombers. And at times the Germans,British, and Americans would engaged in air combat with their fighters. And in the eastern part of the war in Europe the Red army of the Soviet Union would fight the Nazi's sometimes in the grassy farm fields and in the snowy forests but during the battles of Stalingrad,Moscow and Berlin it was a firefight that was never ending with buildings shattered to pieces roads were covered with rubble and the weather was irritating with the rain coming down as they were engaged in combat, The war in Europe ended on may 8th, 1945 the day of V-E day also known as Victory in Europe after Russia took Berlin and the fall of Mussolni and Hitler took a severe blow to the axis powers in Europe the war in Europe was ending and was celebrated on May 8th 1945.
Appeasement means giving in to someone provided their demands are seen as reasonable. During the 1930s, many politicians in both Britain and France came to see that the terms of the Treaty of Versailles had placed restrictions on Germany that were unfair.
When Germany began re-arming in 1934, many politicians felt that Germany had a right to re-arm in order to protect herself. It was also argued that a stronger Germany would prevent the spread of Communism to the west.
In 1936, Hitler argued that because France had signed a new treaty with Russia, Germany was under threat from both countries and it was essential to German security that troops were stationed in the Rhineland. France was not strong enough to fight Germany without British help and Britain was not prepared to go to war at this point. Furthermore, many believed that since the Rhineland was a part of Germany it was reasonable that German troops should be stationed there.
In May 1937, Neville Chamberlain became Prime Minister of Britain. He believed that the Treaty of Versailles had treated Germany badly and that there were a number of issues associated with the Treaty that needed to be put right. He felt that giving in to Hitler's demands would prevent another war.
The Munich Agreement, signed by the leaders of Germany, Britain, France and Italy, agreed that the Sudetenland would be returned to Germany and that no further territorial claims would be made by Germany. They felt that they had been betrayed by both Britain and France with whom alliances had been made. However, the Munich Agreement was generally viewed as a victory and an excellent example of securing peace through negotiation rather than war.
When Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939, he broke the terms of the Munich Agreement. Although it was realized that the policy of appeasement had failed, Chamberlain was still not prepared to take the country to war over. Instead, he made a guarantee to come to Poland's aid if Hitler invaded Poland. After the failed appeasement Germany Invades Poland and begins what to be known as World War 2
League of nations
After the War in Europe was over allied forces then focused on the war in the pacific realizing that the Japanese even at the face of defeat they would not surrender,President Truman tried to negotiate peace with Japan however negotiating did not go well which threatened the Japanese with “ utter destruction” if they refused. General MacArthur purposed that after the bombings they would invade the mainland of Japan however Truman believed it was result in over a million allied casualties In order to avoid such a high casualty rate, Truman decided–over the moral reservations of Secretary of War Henry Stimson, General Dwight Eisenhower and a number of the Manhattan Project scientists–to use the atomic bomb in the hopes of bringing the war to a quick end . The Manhattan Project under the direction of Major General Leslie R. Groves jr of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, designed and built the first atomic bombs. Research for the weapon began in 1939 fearing that the Germans would develop the atomic weapon first. Over the next several years, the program’s scientists worked on producing the key materials for nuclear fission–uranium-235 and plutonium. They sent them to Los Alamos, New Mexico, where a team led by J. Robert Oppenheimer worked to turn these materials into a workable atomic bomb. Early on the morning of July 16, 1945, the Manhattan Project held its first successful test of an atomic device–a plutonium bomb–at the Trinity test site at Alamogordo, New Mexico.
Approximately 8.15am on August 6th, 1945 a us B-29 bomber dropped an atomic bomb on the japanese city of Hiroshima, instantly killing around 80,000 people. Japanese still did not surrender after Hiroshima so three days later, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, causing the deaths of 40,000 more. The dropping of Japan, however, vowed to fight to the bitter end in the Pacific, despite clear indications that they had little chance of winning. In fact, between mid-April 1945 and mid-July, Japanese forces inflicted Allied casualties totaling nearly half those suffered in three full years of war in the Pacific,bombs, which occurred by executive order of US president Harry Truman remains the only nuclear attack in history. In the months following the attack, roughly 100,000 more people died slow, horrendous deaths as a result of radiation poisoning. The Atomic bombs not only changed the way we look at warfare but it also showed how much destruction could be made from that small of a bomb.
The Pacific Campaign began at small islands in the south pacific,battles in the pacific were tropical but sometimes did have large opened areas for airfields that the Japanese created on the such as Guadalcanal and Peleiu island. Japanese mostly used the element of surprise before the Marines could storm the beaches of the islands Japanese infantry troops would hide in the jungle and wait for the right time to attack while the marines went on patrol's looking for the Japanese. The Pacific was mostly Guerrilla warfare where we used flamethrowers on the caves that japanese would hide themselves in on Okinawa,and Peleiu and in the jungles on the Islands and were the infantry would spread beyond the large battlefields on the beach landings and the firefights that would be fought near the airfields that the Japanese had created, At times there would be tank combat with the axis and allies however they Japan didn't use the tanks that were developed because they stationed them at their cities preparing for the allied invasion of Japan. At times there would be air combat like on pearl harbor were the fighters and bombers would attack the allied vessels while the allied fighters would try two protect their vessels against axis fighters and at times before the marines would start invade the islands they would bomb the islands to clear of any axis forces hiding out or any kind of armory on the islands, like on Peleiu where the bombing lasted for 3 days straight the marines thought that the fighting would only last for three weeks however thanks to lack of intelligence, underground caves on the islands,and using camouflage to hide their Anti aircraft guns the fighting lasted for almost two months. And it would rain at times and it would last for about a week or more. The Fighting in the pacific lasted over four years and a couple months after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Japanese were a relentless enemy during WW2 and would stop at nothing till they were victrious the war in the pacific ended with tow atomic bombs claiming over 120,000 lives in the ctites. And over the thousand of allied and axis forces heavy casualties
In World war 2,continual advancements in technology were mandatory to maintain a competitive edge over the enemy. While technological advancements were made prior to the war, other developments were direct result of the trails and errors suffered during the war. The WW2 era housed a great many changes which affected weaponry, logical support,communications, and intelligence, medicine and various industries.
Advancement in Weaponry occurd rapidly during the second world war, including everything from aircraft to small arms. At the beginning of WW2, little advancement had been seen since the end of WW1. However, just six short years late the face of warfare morphed significantly with the military utilizing jet aircraft's and ballistic missiles
Aircraft development was crucial during WW2 due its increased use throughout the war-as bombers,fighters and reconnaissance. Massive bombing raids were being utilized as an alternative to static trench warfare. Air superiority was the goal both Allies and the Axis, each dedicating as much man/woman and machine power as possible to produce the ultimate air weapon. By the end of WWII, pilots were flying jet aircraft's. Other advancements in armament, maneuverability and radar assisted with the continual advancement of military aircraft.
The production of small arms changed dramtically with the introduction of stamping, riveting and welding. Semi-automatic rifles and assault rifles were also developed during this era. A number of transformations emerged throughout this time that would affect future small arms advancements, WWII small arms have continued to be a favorite among collectors of WWII weapons in general. New production methods for weapons for weapons such as stamping, riveting, and wielding came into being to produce the the number of arms needed. While this had been tried before, during World War 1, it had resulted in quite possibly the worst firearm ever adopted
Additional Innovation in technology from WWII
Radar and sonar: The US Navy coined the acronym Radar (Radio Detection and Ranging) In 1940.
Computers: The History of computing devices and digital electronics in general, saw significant leaps forward during WWII with the development of the American ENIAC and British colossus projects.
Synthetic Ribber: The United States produced quality synthetic rubber, GRS.
Jet Engines:One significant innovation of jet engines was the axial-flow compressor.
Aircraft: Glide bombs-the first "smart bombs",such as the fritz x anti-shipping missle, had wire or radio remote control:the worlds first fighter jet(Messerschmit 262) nd jet bomber(Arado 234) the worlds first operational military helicopters(Flettner FI 282)the worlds first rocket-powerd fighter(Messerschmit 163)
Seven Major Consequences of World War II
1: The End of the European Age.
2: The rise of the US to superpower status.
3: The expansion of the Soviet Union and its rise to superpower status.
4: The emergence of the Cold War.
5. The beginning of the nuclear age.
6: The rise of nationalism and independence movements in Asia and Africa.
7: A renewed effort to secure lasting peace through international organizations.