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Transcript of REMIX CULTURE
Anne van Zantwijk
Going back to Hip Hop and
Sampling in the '80s
Andrew Bartlett – Airshafts, Loudspeakers, and the Hip Hop Sample: Contexts and African American Musical Aesthetics.
Andrew Ross – Princes Among Thieves: Sampling the ‘80s
Steve Jones – James Brown, Sample Culture and the Permanent Distance of Glory
Andrew Bartlett: "Airshafts, Loudspeakers, and the Hip Hop Sample: Contexts and African American Musical Aesthetics".
Andrew Ross: "Princes Among Thieves: Sampling the ‘80s".
Steve Jones: "James Brown, Sample Culture and the Permanent Distance of Glory".
Gilbert O'Sullivan - "Alone Again (Naturally)" (1972)
Biz Markie - "Alone Again" (1991)
“In a tradition where musical ideas, melodies, and phrasing are more likely to be viewed as common property than as a matter of personal ownership, it is much easier to conclude that versions of other people’s music-making are primarily a tribute to them and not a plagiaristic act.”
Sampling in the 80s
- Appropriation, collaging, creative copying
- Institutional critique on modernist credos
- "Rappers' Delight"
- Cueing, spinning, scratching, needle manipulation
- 'Legacy' in an ongoing musical conversation
Sampling in the 80s
- Division between musicians and samplers
- Growth of a movement
- MCs, DJs, Break-Dancers, Graffiti Artists
- Hard Core Black Nationalism
- Technical Mixing Precision
1. Do you agree that historical musical samples could be seen as 'common knowledge'' or 'legacy' within urban Hip Hop culture, and that they should be used freely in new musical compositions? (Bartlett)
2. Sampling in the '80s brought a long tradition of musical "borrowing" into the digital age. Today, "sampling" is seen differently. Do you think sampling has to be seen as theft, or can we say that current copyright law is making creativity a crime?
3. When we think back to the James Brown song "I'm Real", there are two different James' in space and time: the samples and the singing around it. Which one of those can be seen as the 'real' musical product? Is the song made around samples of his 'real' work, or are the samples just meaningless musical samples here?
- Born in 1956
- Professor in Social and Cultural Analysis
- New York University.
- University of Washington
- American Ethnic Studies
- Music, Literature, Arts, Jazz
- University of Sussex
- Media and Film
- Horror, Pornography, Gender Studies, Feminism,
"All you copy cats out there, get offa my chip
'Cause I'm James Brown with the full, full force
I ain't takin' no lib
I'm real, I'm the real super bad
And there's nobody out there good enough
To take the things I have"
James Brown - I'm Real
James Brown - I'm Real (1988)
James Brown - I'm Real
- Sampling his own previous work
- Ruling out Copy Cats
- Testament to his own glory days
- Previousness of Greatness
- Differences in time and place
- Ironic playfulness or narcissistic attitude?
African American Performative Musical Aesthetics
"The art of digital sampling in (primarily) African American hip hop is intricately connected to an African American/ African diasporic aesthetic which carefully selects available media, texts, and contexts for performative use."
- Spirituality and Rhythm
- Leading voices in corn shucking event
- Performative Actionality
- "White Minstrelsy in Blackface"
Bodily Appropriation and Black Collective Memory
- Rhythmic movement in the '80s
- Closeness of listening and bodily performativity
- Trisha Rose: "Power of Black Collective Memory"
- Elisabeth Wheeler: "Fragmentation as Black History"
- Hip Hop as "massive archiving"
The Turntable in the 80s places the record at “the center of the hip hop performance, turning the notion of musical virtuosity on its head by using prerecorded material not only as rhythm but also as melody and harmony. The questions of authorship, musicianship, "creativity," and "originality" are, thus, problematized” (647)
- Ownership vs. Common Knowledge
- Performative Appropriation of Communal Knowledge
- Inability to see historical connections through concepts
like authenticity and property
Legal Ownership and Sampling
Black woman (1933 - 1959)
Recent Law Suit: Beastie Boys vs. Trouble Funk (2012)
Suing 23 years later