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Critical Discourse Analysis
Transcript of Critical Discourse Analysis
Brain at work
Out of sight
Principles for Critical Discourse Analysis -Fairclough and Wodak (1997)
social and political issues are constructed and reflected in discourse
power relations are negotiated and performed through discourse
discourse both reflects and reproduces social relations
ideologies are produced and reflected in the use of discourse
Strategies & choices
Social and political issues are constructed and reflected in discourse
Depending on the aim
-who allows a person to speak
-how they do this
Hutchby & woofit (2008) "the person who speaks first is often in a weaker position"
1st person gives opinion
2nd person challenges the oponent to expand on
Reflects & reproduces social relations
Reinforces social & gendered stereotypes
Ideologies are produced & reflected
Relations based on
"WHATEVER GENDER WE ARE INVOLVED IN AND WHATEVER THE REGISTER OF THE SITUATION, OUR USE OF LANGUAGE WILL ALSO BE INFLUENCED BY OUR IDEOLOGICAL POSITIONS: THE VALUES WE HOLD (CONCIOUSLY OR UNCOUNCIOUSLY), THE BIASES AND PERSPECTIVES WE ADOPT
Relationship in a critical perspective
DISCOURSE TYPE /GENRE
How the content of the text is presented & angle/perspective
Concepts & issues emphasized
Concepts & issues played down
Passive Voice's agents
Word & phrase level
Degree of technicality
Beyond level of description to a deeper understanding -Explanation of why a text is as it is and what it is aiming to do
CDA & Genre example
Campaing of Hong Kong as a World-class city
Public consultation document
CDA & framing example
More than 700 people were arrested Saturday during an anti-nuclear, anti-Persian Gulf buildup protest at the Nevada Test Site.
Thousands turned out for the demonstration.
A sponsor of the protest, American Peace Test, said the crowd was 3,000 to 4,000 strong
A & larger data sets
Rely in more than words
Collect a lot of relevant data
-Similar to stylistic analysis
CA should include discussions with the producers and consumers of texts and not just rest on the analyst's view
It's agenda is important
Important details & arguments still need to be carefully worked out
Conversation analysis & membership categorization analysis
Systematic functional linguistics
more detailed linguistic analysis
teaching "with an attitude"
Josep m. cots
New Perspective on language, which considers that language is:
a)questionable and problematic
b)reflects social/ideological processes
c)constitutes, at the same time, a
resource to act upon those processes
a) An unusual community (low level English Proficiency-adapt existing material to promote critical literacy)
b) Easy reading (higher level of language proficiency-integrate ss experience as readers as EFL teachers
b)read to find 3 things about Amish
CDA says INCOMPLETE
Competence-based model (knowledge=training)
van Lier "lifelong learning skills"
a)Deal with unexpected
b)make informed choices
c)develop sharp observational skills
d)construct useful knowledge in one's interaction with the world
e)be guided by internal values, convictions &reasons
1. Are the Amish typical American people? Why?
2. In your opinion, who wrote the text? An Amish or a non- Amish person?
3. What do you think of the Amish after reading the text? Would you like to be an Amish?
a)Where can you find a text like this? What kind of readers is it addresed to? Is it written for Amish or non-Amish people?
b)What is the "point" of the text? What is the author trying to tell us?
c) What do you know about New York or the USA? The Amish live near New York. Are they really "an unsual community? How does the author of the text try to show us that they are "unusual"?
a) What linking words connect the following ideas?
b) Are the ideas on both sides presented as paradoxical or contradictory?
c) Fill in the " you" column in the table below and say in each case if the Word/phrase in question has a positive or a negative meaning for you. Do the same with the "Amish" column
A sample task: Easy Reading
Pre-task: Introduction to the topic &task
a) the task
b) the planning /preparation of report
c) Presentation of the report
Language focus: Examine specific features of the text, reach conclusions, and apply to specific practice
Critical Learning a Proposal
1. Balanced insight into basic theoretical concepts within discourse analysis
2. Tools for analysing texts (cohesive devices)
3. Ss perform critical language learning through analysis of authentic texts
In order to perform critical analysis of the text, students should count both on some kind of instruments to work with and some specific theoretical knowledge
Do you know what a political slogan is?
What is your reaction?
What information does each word convey?
Create your own slogan for vice-chancellor of your university
In what way your slogan will impact other people?
How does these texts make you feel?
Which similarities can you notice between them?
Can you extract any explicit or implicit connotations of power from them?
Can you analyse the relationship the singer maintains with other people from a critical discourse analysis point of view?
Whose authority does she confront?
Who does she confer authority to?
Examine how slogans may confer power to the people wearing the t-shirt & how they control or manipulate the reader
Create your own t-shirt slogan
Comment on the slogans created in the class, chose the best one
Evaluate if there is a coincidence between the intentions of the authors and the interpretation of the class
Interview with Angelina Jolie
-Play the role of a journalist (prepare interview)
How would you start the conversation?
How can you keep a balance..,?
Try to establish the strategy
Receiver & sender portrayed?
Stategies-info more convincing