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Critical Discourse Analysis

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Elyzza Rizzo

on 27 September 2014

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Transcript of Critical Discourse Analysis

ANALYSIS
CRITICAL
!
WARNING
Brain at work
_________
DISCOURSE
Hyland
(2005b:4) observes
Interests
Positions
Perspectives
Values
Out of sight
Rogers
(2004:6)
Discourse
Socially
Politically
Racially
Economically
Principles for Critical Discourse Analysis -Fairclough and Wodak (1997)
social and political issues are constructed and reflected in discourse
power relations are negotiated and performed through discourse
discourse both reflects and reproduces social relations
ideologies are produced and reflected in the use of discourse
Strategies & choices
Social and political issues are constructed and reflected in discourse
Same event
Depending on the aim
Power Relations
-who controls
-who allows a person to speak
-how they do this
Hutchby & woofit (2008) "the person who speaks first is often in a weaker position"
1st person gives opinion
2nd person challenges the oponent to expand on
Reflects & reproduces social relations
Reinforces social & gendered stereotypes
stokoe's
2003
Ideologies are produced & reflected
Relations based on
Power
gender
class
ethnicity
DISCOURSE
EGGINS (1994:10)
"WHATEVER GENDER WE ARE INVOLVED IN AND WHATEVER THE REGISTER OF THE SITUATION, OUR USE OF LANGUAGE WILL ALSO BE INFLUENCED BY OUR IDEOLOGICAL POSITIONS: THE VALUES WE HOLD (CONCIOUSLY OR UNCOUNCIOUSLY), THE BIASES AND PERSPECTIVES WE ADOPT
SOCIOCULTURAL PRACTICES
DISCOURSE PRACTICES
TEXTS
Relationship in a critical perspective
DISCOURSE TYPE /GENRE
FRAMING
How the content of the text is presented & angle/perspective
foregrounding
Concepts & issues emphasized
Concepts & issues played down
backgrounded
Sentence level
Topicalized
Agent-patient
Relations
Authority=Power
Passive Voice's agents
+
+
Word & phrase level
Connotations
Degree formality/informality
Degree of technicality
Research situation
Research questions
Text
FOCUS
Beyond level of description to a deeper understanding -Explanation of why a text is as it is and what it is aiming to do
CDA & Genre example
Commitee meetings
Campaing of Hong Kong as a World-class city
annual Yearbook
exhibitions
Information leaflets
Public consultation document
video
CDA & framing example
More than 700 people were arrested Saturday during an anti-nuclear, anti-Persian Gulf buildup protest at the Nevada Test Site.

Thousands turned out for the demonstration.

A sponsor of the protest, American Peace Test, said the crowd was 3,000 to 4,000 strong
CD
A & larger data sets
WWW
Sources
Authority
Who
Rely in more than words
C
H
A
N
G
E
Collect a lot of relevant data
!
Criticism
-Similar to stylistic analysis
-Widdowson (1998,2004)
CA should include discussions with the producers and consumers of texts and not just rest on the analyst's view
Details
It's agenda is important
s
o
c
i
a
l
s
i
g
n
i
f
i
c
a
n
c
e
Important details & arguments still need to be carefully worked out
Cultural approach
Conversation analysis & membership categorization analysis
Systematic functional linguistics
more detailed linguistic analysis
Solutions
teaching "with an attitude"

Josep m. cots
New Perspective on language, which considers that language is:

a)questionable and problematic

b)reflects social/ideological processes

c)constitutes, at the same time, a
resource to act upon those processes
2 Activities:

a) An unusual community (low level English Proficiency-adapt existing material to promote critical literacy)
b) Easy reading (higher level of language proficiency-integrate ss experience as readers as EFL teachers
Reading comprehension

Grammar
Vocabulary
a)Pre-reading questions
b)read to find 3 things about Amish
c)Chart can/can't
CDA says INCOMPLETE
Language Education
Competence-based model (knowledge=training)
van Lier "lifelong learning skills"
a)Deal with unexpected
b)make informed choices
c)develop sharp observational skills
d)construct useful knowledge in one's interaction with the world
e)be guided by internal values, convictions &reasons
Fairclough's model
Social Practice
Discursive Practice
Textual Practice
SOCIAL PRACTICE
1. Are the Amish typical American people? Why?
2. In your opinion, who wrote the text? An Amish or a non- Amish person?
3. What do you think of the Amish after reading the text? Would you like to be an Amish?
Discourse Practice
a)Where can you find a text like this? What kind of readers is it addresed to? Is it written for Amish or non-Amish people?
b)What is the "point" of the text? What is the author trying to tell us?
c) What do you know about New York or the USA? The Amish live near New York. Are they really "an unsual community? How does the author of the text try to show us that they are "unusual"?
Textual Practice
a) What linking words connect the following ideas?
b) Are the ideas on both sides presented as paradoxical or contradictory?
c) Fill in the " you" column in the table below and say in each case if the Word/phrase in question has a positive or a negative meaning for you. Do the same with the "Amish" column
A sample task: Easy Reading
Willis (1996):

Pre-task: Introduction to the topic &task
Task Cycle:
a) the task
b) the planning /preparation of report
c) Presentation of the report
Language focus: Examine specific features of the text, reach conclusions, and apply to specific practice
Critical Learning a Proposal
1. Balanced insight into basic theoretical concepts within discourse analysis
2. Tools for analysing texts (cohesive devices)
3. Ss perform critical language learning through analysis of authentic texts
In order to perform critical analysis of the text, students should count both on some kind of instruments to work with and some specific theoretical knowledge
Do you know what a political slogan is?
What is your reaction?
What information does each word convey?
Create your own slogan for vice-chancellor of your university
In what way your slogan will impact other people?
How does these texts make you feel?
Which similarities can you notice between them?
Can you extract any explicit or implicit connotations of power from them?
Can you analyse the relationship the singer maintains with other people from a critical discourse analysis point of view?
Whose authority does she confront?
Who does she confer authority to?
Examine how slogans may confer power to the people wearing the t-shirt & how they control or manipulate the reader
Create your own t-shirt slogan
Comment on the slogans created in the class, chose the best one
Evaluate if there is a coincidence between the intentions of the authors and the interpretation of the class
Interview with Angelina Jolie
-Play the role of a journalist (prepare interview)
How would you start the conversation?
How can you keep a balance..,?
Try to establish the strategy
Receiver & sender portrayed?
Stategies-info more convincing
Full transcript