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Empowering People in the Community through the Development o

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laiza bae

on 22 February 2016

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Transcript of Empowering People in the Community through the Development o

- Emotion-based coping mechanisms enable an individual to reduce stress by acknowledging the emotions that have been triggered.
Empowering People in the Community through the Development of One’s Coping Mechanism
To "cope" means to come to terms with or deal with successfully. Therefore a coping mechanism is a way of enabling a person to successfully deal with difficult situations or circumstances.
Coping mechanisms can also be described as “survival skills” a term which refers to the methods or strategies that people adopt to deal with life experiences that cause stress, pain or trauma.
In the arena of Psychology, coping mechanisms can be categorized in the following ways:
1. Defense mechanism
2. Action based
These types of coping mechanisms may be negative or positive for example:


- Action-based coping mechanisms involves an active approach to problem-solving the situations that cause stress.

For example, in dealing with the financial challenges associated with redundancy, an action-based coping mechanism may be to reduce expenditure by cutting down on luxury items when shopping and eating out at restaurants.
Action based coping includes planning, suppression, self-control and restraint.
- Defense mechanisms are ways to cope which people use unconsciously to overcome stress and challenges.
They are also used when an individual is experiencing stress.
3. Emotion based
Although these ways of coping do not directly deal with the stressful situation, they assist in calming emotions which can then be addressed by applying action based coping mechanisms.

- Harmful coping mechanisms can occur with overuse of a coping mechanism and have a negative, often detrimental impact upon an individual such as:

illegal drug and alcohol use, depression, violence, self harm, nail biting and hair-pulling.

4. Harmful
Mental responses:
such as aggressive thoughts, "I can’t do this I am useless".
Other ways of categorizing coping mechanisms are as follows:
Physical responses:
heart beating faster
stomach ache.
self harm
isolating self
Coping mechanisms are learned patterns of
behaviour that we have adopted to enable us to cope
with the emotions that are triggered by life’s experiences.

As our behaviours result from the way we handle our
emotions, they can be either negative or positive. Coping
mechanisms therefore, can either be negative or positive.

* violence and abuse (attacking physically, verbally, mentally, spiritually)
* acting out (misbehave on purpose)
* being passive (not trying to cope, always in situation where he/she is the victim )
* addictions (alcohol, drugs, solvents, medications, gambling, etc)
* minimizing (things are not that bad)
* rationalizing (he/she did not know better)
* denial (there is no problem)
* repression (forgetting)
* developing a ‘false self’ (behaving like someone who you are not)
* disassociate self from situation (spacing out, thinking not feeling)

* controlling behaviour
* becoming a workaholic (stay busy to avoid feeling)
* running away (physically, mentally, emotionally, spiritually)
* self harm, suicide attempts
* isolating self and withdrawal
* lying, blaming others (irresponsible)
* manipulating
* depression
* not communicating

* grounding skills (stay focused, use all five senses)
* manage stress
* manage anger (deep breathing)
* get to know self
* seek support from friends and family
* communication (talk about our feelings)
* physical activity (healthy sexual relationships)
* healthy eating habits
* healthy sleeping habits learn patience
* respect others (their choices, we can not change anybody)

* learn acceptance
* learn forgiveness
* crying, laughing, yelling in a safe place
* trust
* read, expand your knowledge
* be open-minded
* journal (write things down, doodle) spend quality time with family, partner
* positive self talk build or create something
* become involved in community events
In today's world there is nobody who can honestly say that they have absolutely no problems or worries in their life. Everyone has something to deal with and things to get over in their life--that's why it's called life. As long as you're alive, you will constantly have to battle the burdens of life that all people encounter.
Some challenges we may encounter are:
Or we may experience…

Because of being

hopeless, some were
destroyed by the
hardships.. but others
had overcome them.
What Do We Mean by “Coping Mechanism
feelings of fear
Emotional Responses
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