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Empires in East Asia

This presentation is used as a compliment to several History Alive activities. It is meant to be done over a period of five days/lectures; one per section of the Prezi.

Broad Ax Ranch

on 17 May 2011

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Transcript of Empires in East Asia

Empires in East Asia Tang and Song China South East Asia Korean Dynasties Japan Mongols Distinct people - own native traditions
and influenced by Chinese 108 BC - conquered by Chinese and learned about:
Centralized government
Writing Tribes banned together and made three rival kingdoms Silla overthrew other two and kicked out the Chinese Built monasteries
Elegant sculptures
Writing system Around 935 - Wang Kon (rebel) gained control and made a new dynasty: Koryu (lasted until 1392) Modeled government after China
Society sharply divided
Celadon pottery
Wooden blocks for Buddhist writings Occupied by Mongols from 1231-1360s
Paid tribute: 20,000 horses, 1 million soldiers
Children and artisans - slaves
Destroyed Buddhist blocks Overthrown by scholar-officials and military leaders: Choson (Yi) dynasty Khmer Empire: Cambodia
Main power in region:
800s empire
1200 reached peak Rice cultivation
Irrigation and waterways
Extensive city and temple complexes Dai Viet: Vietnam
939 Broke away from China Influenced by China: Government and Buddhism
Women more freedom Srivijaya and Sailendra
Island kingdoms: Indonesia and Malaysia Buddhist temples
Taxed trade Early Japan - not united
Hundreds of clans Each clan worshipped nature gods
and goddesses
Eventually - combined to form Shinto or "way of the gods." Based on:
Respect for forces of nature
Worship of ancestors
Kami - Divine spirits 400s - Yamamoto Clan Claimed to be descended from Amaterasu Lacked real control
Rival clans fought for power and winners ruled in Yamamoto emperor's name
Emperor as figurehead and ruling power "behind" throne Culture: Influenced by Chinese via the Koreans
Buddhism (but did not give up Shintoism - blended)
From 607 (and for 200 years) Japanese went to China to learn Writing
Simple arts: cooking, gardening, drinking tea
Clothing and hair Heian Japan: 794-1185 Named after capital (now Kyoto)
Rules dictated daily life
length of swords
colors of robes
forms of address
laughing outloud in public
Elaborate rituals and artistic pursuits Fujiwara Family
Had real control
1000s - Japan became unsafe and feudalism emerged
Samurai warriors "one who serves"
Bushido code courage, fairness, revenge for gods, protect the weak, honorable death best - like European Knights chivalry Kamakura Shogunate 1100s - two families fighting for power
Minamoto family won
Yoritomo took title of shogun Emperor "reigned" from Kyoto
Shogun's headquarters in Kamakura Defeated Mongols: 1274 and 1281 (Kublai Khan)
Drained treasury - Samurai began to fight for local lords
Still lasted until 1868 Collapse of the Han in 220 leaves 350 years of a weakened China Tang: 618-907 Expanded empire
By 668 - influence over Korea Wu Zhao - empress, oversaw campaign in Korea Strengthened central government
Expanded canals and roads
Promoted foreign trade
Civil service examination (Scholar-Officials) Imposed taxes - brought hardships
Fought Muslims in Central Asia (751)
Internal rebellions - 907 rebels overthrew Song Dynasty 960 reunited China until 1279
Could not regain all of the land lost
Tried to buy peace with tribute (Northern neighbors) Advancements:
Moveable type print
Mechanical clock
Paper money
Magnetic compass
Negative numbers
Agricultural advancements
Poetry and painting
Expanded trade
Role of women:
Peasant women worked
Upper-class women - bound foot Yuan Dynasty - Mongol rule People of the Steppe
Pastoralists Lived on horseback
Depended on animals: food, clothing and housing
Traveled in clans Engaged in trade, but also raids of settled societies Genghis Khan
Temujin - begins uniting tribes
1206 - accepts title: Genghis Khan (universal ruler) By 1225: conquered China and Central Asia Brilliant organizer
Grouped warriors in armies of 10,000
Gifted strategist
Tricks to confuse enemy
Cruelty as a weapon 1227-1277
Conquered territory - largest unified land empire in history Sons and grandsons continued conquest Pax Mongolica
Imposed stability and law
Safe passage: trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries
Postal system
Religious tolerance (ferocious in war, tolerant in peace) (Some areas did not recover) By 1260:
Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China) Ended: 1368
Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia): 1370s
Ilkhanate (Persia) Ended: 1330s
Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia): 1480 Wang Kon Celadon Pottery Famous for its milky green color Being shogun makes him the supreme general of the emperor's army Kublai Khan - great Khan in 1260
Unlike other Mongols
Enjoyed luxurious life
Make mark as Chinese emperor, not Mongol Mongols kept separate identity
Different laws
Kept Chinese out of high government positions Restored Grand Canal
Built roads
Increased trade Mongols kicked out: 1368 - Ming Dynasty So, with the collapse of the Mongol Empire, where does that leave us?
Without a real world power
Religious wars in Europe: 100 Years War
The rise of the Ottoman Turks
Mughal India (descendants of the Mongols)
The Bubonic Plague and the death of approximately 50 million people

And... World History II
Full transcript