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Transcript of Confucianism &
Confucius & Confucianism
The Silk Road
Mini Quiz Chp4: Sec 4
1. The practice where children should practice respect for their parents or elders is known as
c. Filial Piety
2. Chinese thinker Laozi was responsible for which philosophical school of thought?
3. The two powers that together represented the natural rhythms of life is known as
a. Filial Piety
c. Yin and Yang
Hanfeizi and Li Si
13-year-old Qin Dynasty ruler
who came to the throne in the third century B.C. and employed
Legalist ideas to subdue warring states and unify his country.
After ruling for over 20 years, in 221 b.c., the
assumed the name
Shi Huangdi, which means “First Emperor.”
Shi Huangdi begun his reign by
halting the internal battles, defeating invaders and crushing internal resistance to his rule.
doubled China’s size
. Shi Huangdi was determined to
established an autocracy
—He commanded all the noble families to live at the capital city under his suspicious gaze.
Shi Huangdi’s sweeping program of centralization included the
building of a highway network of over 4,000 miles
. He forced peasants to work on roads against their will.
Shi Huangdi’s rule,
irrigation projects increased farm production. Trade blossomed, thanks to the new road system. Trade pushed a new class—merchants— into prominence.
Great Wall of China
was constructed during his reign
Contributions from China
From Chapter 4 Section 4
: In Confucian philosophy, filial piety is a virtue of respect for one's parents and ancestors.
: a system of government in which most of the important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected representatives.
:a book of oracles to answer ethical or practical problems. Readers used the book by throwing a set of coins, interpreting the results, and then reading the appropriate oracle.
Yin and Yang
: two powers that together represented the natural rhythms of life. Yang represents the masculine qualities in the universe, yin the feminine.
: a system of government by one person with absolute power.
The Silk Road
4. A government in which the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner is known as
5. Who was emperor when the Great Wall of China was built?
a. Li Su
b. Shi Huangdi
d. Li Si
China’s most influential scholar was Confucius
- Born in 551 B.C.,
Confucius lived at a time when the
Zhou Dynasty was being torn apart by warring lords.
Confucius believed that
social order, harmony, and good government
could be restored in China if society was organized around five basic relationships.
These were the relationships between:
1) ruler and subject,
2) father and son,
3) husband and wife,
4) older brother and younger brother, and
5) friend and friend.
Three of Confucius’s five relationships were based upon the family. Confucius stressed that children should practice what he called
He laid the groundwork for the creation of a
a trained civil service
, or those who run the government.
Laozi philosophical thinker of Daoism
Dao De Ching
(The Way of Virtue) was a
book that expressed Laozi’s beliefs
. He said that a
universal force called the Dao
meaning “the Way,” guides all things
Daoism believed in
only the natural order was important
Laozi believed that
government should do as little as possible and leave the people alone
Laozi thought that people could do little to influence the outcome of events. Daoism offered communion with nature as an alternative to political chaos.
Its search for knowledge and understanding of nature led
Daoism’s followers to pursue scientific studies
. Daoists made contributions to the sciences of alchemy, astronomy, and medicine.
They believed that a
highly efficient and powerful government was the key to restoring order.
The name from their belief
Legalism came from the fact that government should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmony.
Founders Hanfeizi and Li Si
The Legalists taught that a
ruler should provide rich rewards for people who carried out their duties well
. Likewise, the
disobedient should be harshly punished
. In practice, the Legalists stressed punishment more than rewards.
They suggested that a ruler burn all writings that might encourage people to think critically about government.
Legalist ideas gained favor with a prince of a new dynasty that replaced the Zhou.
That powerful ruler was soon to put an end to China’s long period of disorder.
Standardized writing and language
Standardized system of measurement
Building of the Great Wall
Expanded Network of Roads and Canals
Iron technology (cast iron)
Glazed pottery (porcelain)
221 B.C. E. -207 B. C. E.
202 B. C. E. - 220 C.E.
is a series of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by linking traders, merchants, and nomads from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.
Extending 4,000 miles the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in Chinese silk carried out along its length, beginning during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE).