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Transcript of Hawthorne Studies
Test Room Experiment 2 Large amount of pressure Conclusion Established its own standard of output THANK YOU FOR LISTENING! Wilton, Jason, Matthew, Eric Historical
for Management 1927-1932
2 Groups of 6 Female Workers
Separate Rooms Allowed to make certain decisions Why? More intimate atmosphere compared to the factory floor Best means to improve job satisfaction and productivity Conclusion Changes made:
1. Working hours
2. Lunch breaks
3. Rest periods Productivity increased in both rooms
Choose rest periods
Give opinions Develop friendships Freedom to talk The mind-set of workers Caring supervision Informal relationships (Friendships) Participation in decision making Illumination Studies Experiment 1 Mass Interview Programme Experiment 3 Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment 4 Limitations Criticized as illegitimate
Productivity also depends on technology and other non-human variables Overlooked importance of individual decision making Freedom of workers 1 2 4 3 Performance may have improved only for the experiments Workers knew they were under observation Tests under controlled settings A lack of restrictions can lower the output and performance of employees Conclusions focus too much on human factors affecting productivity Too much emphasis on group decision making The need for quick choices without time to talk with others 1932-1934
14 Male Employees Full time observer for 6 months Overall productivity decreased Salaries of the individuals were dependant on the performance of the group as a whole Western
Electric Company Hawthorne Plant Elton Mayo 1924-1933 Series of Studies Focused on employee productivity and motivation > Constructive oversight from managers Example 1 Example 2 Commission Military Social Pressure Tesco Later returned to previous output 1924-1927
Researchers from focused on the lighting of the work environment
interviews were conducted The Experiments Why? Conclusion Harvard University productivity increased! •1928 - 1930
•Approximately 21,000 employees given special treatment
being separated from others
observing signs of caring management Productivity •1928 - 1930
•Approximately 21,000 employees Attitudes towards working situations What would you say? Interpreted the studies as a
sign of caring management a relationship was established Objective How to boost employee productivity without increasing wages Working conditions Perspective on work Employee supervision Direct Approach •Questions considered significant by managers and researchers •Hesitant & Reluctant •``Guarded`` responses Indirect Approach •Refrained from questioning the interviewee •Attentively observing •Genuinely respond Importance of social factors Potential to increase productivity Discuss & contribute to significant topics I N C R E A S I N G Motivation