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Organic Molecules Review and Lipids

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by

Daniel Dychkowski

on 26 February 2016

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Transcript of Organic Molecules Review and Lipids

+
Lipids
Proteins
ORGANIC MOLECULES
Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
Foldit
Fats, Phospholipids, Steroids
Insulation, shock absorption, and energy storage
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids = Triglyceride + 3 H20
What does it mean to have the maximum
number of hydrogens?
Why are saturated fats solid at room temperature?
What is a trans fat?
Structure
Questions:
Proteins are polymers made of ___________ ___________ monomers. They are joined by ________________ bonds.
If there are only ___ types of amino acids, how can there be thousands of proteins?
Are proteins hydrophobic or hydrophylic?
What do proteins do in the body?
Chemical Properties and Levels of Structure (2:10-5:05/7:47)
-Sign up!
-Install Program
-Play!
-You must complete the first 5 levels for homework
What is hydrogenation?
Enzymes:
Large proteins that speed up chemical reactions. They are highly specific and their function can be explained by the induced-fit model.
Important for growth and repair.
Prions:
Mad Cow Disease and
Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Carry hereditary information and are polymers of nucleotides.
a phosphate, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
House-pool-garage Model
Lab Activity: DNA Extraction
Build-a-Molecule
What is denaturation? Give an example. (not an egg!)
Atoms
subatomic particles: Protons, neutrons, electrons
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Particle
Mass
Location
Charge
Do Now: Complete the following chart
Isotopes:
Element:
A pure substance of only one type of atom
Practice:
How many protons does C have? How many neutrons?

What is an isotope? Give an example of an isotope of carbon.

Bonding:
Compounds:
Covalent
-Polar
-Non-polar
Ionic
Van der Waals
Radioactive Isotopes:
Biochemistry
Atoms of the same element that differ in number of neutrons.
Some isotopes are unstable and their nuclei break down at a constant rate over time. As they do so, they give off radiation which can be dangerous.
What can this be used for?
What is so important about compounds anyway?
electrons are shared
equal sharing
unequal sharing
electrons are transferred
ions are created
very small intermolecular forces of attraction
Ions
an atom or compound in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom a net positive or negative electrical charge.
Cation
Anion
Water
pH
H
H
O
-
+
the elixir of life
What does it mean to be hydrophobic?
How about hydrophilic?
Challenge
: Balance a paperclip on the surface of the water in the petri dish.
RECALL
: Water is highly polar
A
hydrogen bond
is the attractive interaction between polar molecules in which hydrogen (H) is bound to an atom that loves electrons (
electronegative
).

"water hating" or "repelled by water"
"water loving" or "attracted to water"
Do Now:
1. Is carbon dioxide hydrophobic or hydrophilic? How do you know?
Why is this important?
Large bodies of water can regulate temperature. Our winters are more mild because of our proximity to the ocean (our summers are also cooler).
Like dissolves like.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
the amount of heat required to convert liquid water into water vapor.
insulation and
spring overturn
Capillary Action:
is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces in opposition to forces like gravity. It is due to ___________________ and __________________.
pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The more hydrogen ions that are present, the more acidic is the solution. The pH scale ranges from zero (very acidic) to 14 (very basic).


A pH of 7 is neutral, a pH less than 7 is acidic, and a pH greater than 7 is basic. For example, the pH of lemon juice is 2 while some antacids have a pH of about 10.
How much stronger is an acid with a pH of 2 than an acid with a pH of 3?

How much stronger is the acid with a pH of 2 than an acid with a pH of 5?
Carbohydrate Vocabulary:

For homework define the following terms.
-Dehydration Synthesis
-Hydrolysis
-Monosaccharide
-Disaccharide
-Polysaccharide
-Cellulose
-Starch
-Chitin
-Glycogen
the removing of the hydroxl (OH) and the hydrogen (H) atoms from two organic substances which merges them into one (covalent bond).
the splitting of a molecule due to the addition of the hydrogen ion and the hydroxide ion of water.
A simple sugar composed of one unit (monomer).
examples:
a two saccharide sugar (having two monomers).
examples:
many monosaccharides joined together. (a polymer)
A polysaccharide used by plants for
structure
.
A polysaccharide used by plants for
energy storage.

A polysaccharide used by fungi and arthropods for
structure.
"Animal starch," used for
energy storage
.
Many
macromolecules
are formed by
polymerization
, where large compounds are formed by linking smaller ones together. The smaller units are called
monomers
and are linked together to form
polymers
.
C,H,O
C,H,O,P
C,H,O,N,S
C,H,O,P,N
INORGANIC
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-a-molecule
Ice Cream
Spinach
Sprite
Milk
Potatoes
Pineapple Juice
Do Now:
1. Identify the structure to the right.
a. Label it: phosphate head, fatty acid tail, hydrophobic, hydrophylic



2. Why is this lipid important?
DNA
RNA
Sugar
Bases
Function
Structure
Why is the lock

and key model not considered accurate?

(enzyme)
(substrate)
molecules
compounds
How does this relate to biology?
There is energy stored in bonds!
The physical and chemical properties of compounds differ from those of their constituent elements.
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