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Organic Molecules Review and Lipids
Transcript of Organic Molecules Review and Lipids
Fats, Phospholipids, Steroids
Insulation, shock absorption, and energy storage
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids = Triglyceride + 3 H20
What does it mean to have the maximum
number of hydrogens?
Why are saturated fats solid at room temperature?
What is a trans fat?
Proteins are polymers made of ___________ ___________ monomers. They are joined by ________________ bonds.
If there are only ___ types of amino acids, how can there be thousands of proteins?
Are proteins hydrophobic or hydrophylic?
What do proteins do in the body?
Chemical Properties and Levels of Structure (2:10-5:05/7:47)
-You must complete the first 5 levels for homework
What is hydrogenation?
Large proteins that speed up chemical reactions. They are highly specific and their function can be explained by the induced-fit model.
Important for growth and repair.
Mad Cow Disease and
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Carry hereditary information and are polymers of nucleotides.
a phosphate, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
Lab Activity: DNA Extraction
What is denaturation? Give an example. (not an egg!)
subatomic particles: Protons, neutrons, electrons
Do Now: Complete the following chart
A pure substance of only one type of atom
How many protons does C have? How many neutrons?
What is an isotope? Give an example of an isotope of carbon.
Van der Waals
Atoms of the same element that differ in number of neutrons.
Some isotopes are unstable and their nuclei break down at a constant rate over time. As they do so, they give off radiation which can be dangerous.
What can this be used for?
What is so important about compounds anyway?
electrons are shared
electrons are transferred
ions are created
very small intermolecular forces of attraction
an atom or compound in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom a net positive or negative electrical charge.
the elixir of life
What does it mean to be hydrophobic?
How about hydrophilic?
: Balance a paperclip on the surface of the water in the petri dish.
: Water is highly polar
is the attractive interaction between polar molecules in which hydrogen (H) is bound to an atom that loves electrons (
"water hating" or "repelled by water"
"water loving" or "attracted to water"
1. Is carbon dioxide hydrophobic or hydrophilic? How do you know?
Why is this important?
Large bodies of water can regulate temperature. Our winters are more mild because of our proximity to the ocean (our summers are also cooler).
Like dissolves like.
the amount of heat required to convert liquid water into water vapor.
is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces in opposition to forces like gravity. It is due to ___________________ and __________________.
pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. The more hydrogen ions that are present, the more acidic is the solution. The pH scale ranges from zero (very acidic) to 14 (very basic).
A pH of 7 is neutral, a pH less than 7 is acidic, and a pH greater than 7 is basic. For example, the pH of lemon juice is 2 while some antacids have a pH of about 10.
How much stronger is an acid with a pH of 2 than an acid with a pH of 3?
How much stronger is the acid with a pH of 2 than an acid with a pH of 5?
For homework define the following terms.
the removing of the hydroxl (OH) and the hydrogen (H) atoms from two organic substances which merges them into one (covalent bond).
the splitting of a molecule due to the addition of the hydrogen ion and the hydroxide ion of water.
A simple sugar composed of one unit (monomer).
a two saccharide sugar (having two monomers).
many monosaccharides joined together. (a polymer)
A polysaccharide used by plants for
A polysaccharide used by plants for
A polysaccharide used by fungi and arthropods for
"Animal starch," used for
are formed by
, where large compounds are formed by linking smaller ones together. The smaller units are called
and are linked together to form
1. Identify the structure to the right.
a. Label it: phosphate head, fatty acid tail, hydrophobic, hydrophylic
2. Why is this lipid important?
Why is the lock
and key model not considered accurate?
How does this relate to biology?
There is energy stored in bonds!
The physical and chemical properties of compounds differ from those of their constituent elements.